Cal’s Mid-Spring Tournament 2018

Written by members of the Berkeley Quizbowl Club, Weijia Cheng, Ryan Humphrey, Ike Jose, Eddie Kim, Will Nediger, and Jennie Yang

Edited by Weijia Cheng, Michael Coates, Aseem Keyal, Bruce Lou, Will Nediger, Ryan Humphrey, Eddie Kim, and Jennie Yang


1. This man invited Yale University professor George Trumbull Ladd to give a series of lectures intended to reform his country’s school system. The first of a list of fifteen reasons why this man ought to die accused him of masterminding the death by immolation of a neighboring country’s empress. This man was the chief negotiator for the victors in a treaty whose terms were greatly curtailed by Germany, France, and Russia in the Triple Intervention. As one of the leaders of the (*) Iwakura Mission, this man was impressed by the role in unifying people that Christianity played, which he wrote into his country’s constitution as the concept of kokutai. This man ordered troops to surround Emperor Gojong’s palace in order to force him to sign the Eulsa (“ULL-suh”) Treaty. In October 1909, this man was assassinated at Harbin Railway Station by An Jung-geun (“ahn joong-gun”) for his role in annexing Korea. For 10 points, name this first prime minister of Japan.

ANSWER: Ito Hirobumi [or Ito Toshisuke; or Ito Hirofumi; or Ito Hakubun; or Ito Shunsuke; or Hiyashi Rizuke; be generous and prompt on Hirobumi or any of his given names, but the surname is required for points]

<BL, World History>

2. A paper discusses Cairo’s Khan el-Khalili market and a mother of six who moves to Jerusalem in order to explain a form of this concept through obligations and expectations, information channels, and social norms. Differences between this concept’s “institutionalized” and “objectified” varieties are explained in a paper titled “The Forms of [this concept].” A 2000 book attributes the first use of the term for one form of this concept to a 1916 paper by L.J. Hanifan. The Saguaro Seminar’s attempts to study a form of this concept popularized by (*) James Coleman are documented in the book Better Together, co-authored by Lewis Feldstein. Differential distribution of a form of this concept explains why the upper classes determine aesthetic taste, according to the book Distinction by Pierre Bourdieu (“boor-DYOO”). Dwindling participation in community groups is used to document the decline of this concept’s “social” form in Robert Putnam’s Bowling Alone. For 10 points, what concept’s economic variety, along with land and labor, is one of the three primary factors of production?

ANSWER: capital [accept social capital or cultural capital] (The first line refers to James Coleman’s essay “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.”)
<RK, Social Science>

3. A poetic form in this language has a three-part structure beginning with an erotic prelude in which the poet often ponders the deserted encampment of his beloved. Rhymed poetry in this language was traditionally classified into sixteen meters known as “seas,” each defined by a sequence of prosodic (“pruh-ZAH-dik”) units called “pegs” and “cords.” A set of seven poems written in this language were supposedly written in gold and hung on a sacred building, which is why they are called the (*) Suspended Odes. A semi-legendary poet who wrote in this language, but whose story was popularized in a poem in a different language, was nicknamed “madman” because of his love for a woman who ended up marrying Ward (“wahrd”). The story of that poet was retold in a Farsi poem by Nizami called Layla and Majnun. A form of poetry in this language in which every line repeats the same rhyme developed into the ghazal and is called the qasida. For 10 points, name this language used by poets like al-Mutanabbi.

ANSWER: Arabic [or Classical Arabic; or al-arabiyyah]
<EC, Poetry>

4. Juice from morning glory vines was used to make strips which were assembled to produce a central object in this activity. A stele shows a participant in this activity sitting on a throne with seven entwined serpents sprouting from his neck. Christoph Weiditz depicted a performance of this activity at Charles V’s court and mistakenly described a central object as inflated. An analco divides a taste (“TAH-stay”) in a modern form of this activity which can last several days. Participants in this activity attached thin stone heads resembling ax blades to heavy belts known as (*) yokes. This activity was practiced at locations shaped like a capital “I” and evolved into the modern activity of ulama. During the Postclassic Era, high vertical stone rings were incorporated into this activity, whose losers were sometimes ritually sacrificed. For 10 points, players used their hips to strike a rubber object in what ancient Mesoamerican sport?

ANSWER: Mesoamerican ballgame [or ōllamaliztli; or tlachtli; or pitz; or juego de pelota; or pok-ta-pok; or pok-a-tok; or pokolpok; or ulama before mentioned]

<EC, World History>

5. A story titled for one of these people is about Georges (“zhorzh”), who beheads Alfred just as he realizes Alfred is his father, and was written by Victor Séjour. In a story titled for these people, Xarifa (“huh-REE-fuh”) commits suicide after being forced into sexual servitude. That story is by Lydia Maria Child. After being told that she is this type of person, a woman writes a letter to her mother Madame Valmonde, who tells her to come home. A trope originating in the mid-nineteenth century is named after (*) “tragic” characters of this ethnicity, and is exemplified by stories like “The Wife of His Youth” by Charles W. Chesnutt. A woman finds a letter revealing that it’s actually Armand, not her, who is this ethnicity, at the end of Kate Chopin’s “Désirée’s Baby.” For 10 points, name this type of character often born from the rape of slave women by their white owners.

ANSWER: mulattos [accept quadroons; accept mixed-race people; accept “Le Mulâtre”; accept any answer indicating that they’re part-black and part-white]
<RK, Short Fiction>

6. Mike Williamson plotted the change in this quantity against the ligand concentration in order to determine dissociation constants, using a perturbation technique named for it. The “secondary” form of this quantity is equal to the difference between its observed value and its value for a random coil and is used to probe protein structure. In Lewis bases, this quantity can be altered by the addition of diketone lanthanide complexes, such as Eu(fod)3 (“YOU-fod-three”). Delocalized pi electrons cause this quantity to increase for aromatic compounds due to the creation of a (*) ring current. This quantity is the same for enantiotopic groups but different for diastereotopic groups. This quantity is defined as the sample frequency minus a reference frequency divided by the reference frequency. Deshielding by nearby electron-withdrawing groups can increase this quantity. This value is typically set to zero for tetramethylsilane. For 10 points, name this quantity, measured in parts per million, that is usually plotted on the x-axes of NMR spectra.

ANSWER: chemical shift

<RD, Chemistry>

7. This critic asked his readers to find a single blade of grass in the paintings of a contemporary before discussing that artist’s oval painting showing Jupiter surprising Callisto; he had earlier described that artist as “capable of everything; except the truth.” This man urged artists to “paint as they spoke in Sparta.” To fill out a review of the painting Coresus Sacrificing Himself to Save Callirhoe (“kuh-LIR-oh-ee”), this man included the section “Plato’s Cave,” which featured a fictional correspondence between himself and the German philologist Friedrich Melchior Grimm. He praised the “child-like” vanity of a painter who depicted a young girl (*) crying over the death of her canary. This man suggested Etienne Falconet be commissioned for The Bronze Horseman. He was the major critical support behind Jean-Baptiste Greuze (“grooz”), but later supported Jean-Baptiste Chardin (“shar-DAN”). Though not Voltaire, this man proclaimed the moral supremacy of genre painting in a letter that was part of his correspondence with Catherine the Great. For 10 points, name this Enlightenment art critic who was also the chief editor of the Encyclopedia.

ANSWER: Denis Diderot (“duh-NEE dee-duh-ROH”)

<AK, Other Art (Criticism)>

8. In a 2012 book, Merlin Donald, Charles Taylor, and others discuss the consequences of a concept originally put forth by this thinker, which Taylor calls a “Revolution.” This thinker divided philosophers into categories like “Creative Orderers” and “Great Disturbers.” According to this thinker, human progress arises from our confrontation of the “unconditioned” through “boundary-situations.” This thinker eventually abandoned his belief that the (*) “demonism” of technology created a machine-like mass society, which he labeled “the Apparatus” in his book Man in the Modern Age. He maintained a lengthy correspondence with Martin Heidegger, which influenced his own theories of transcendence and Existenz (“eg-zih-STENTS”). This thinker noted the concurrent rise of spiritual thinkers like Confucius, the Buddha, and Zarathustra from 800 to 200 BCE in The Origin and Goal of History. For 10 points, name this German existentialist who popularized the “Axial Age.”

ANSWER: Karl (Theodor) Jaspers (“YAH-spurs”)
<RK, Philosophy>

9. A quantity describing one kind of this phenomenon is the numerator of the Wilson ratio and is derived by considering a parabolic density of states with a right half shifted up by an energy linearly proportional to the B-field. Non-degenerate ground states and a second-order Zeeman effect cause a kind of this phenomenon with a strength proportional to the square of the magnetic moment matrix element divided by its energy gap; that form is temperature independent. A function used to model this phenomenon is equal to the “hyperbolic cotangent of x, minus one over xand is known as the (*) Langevin function, which is the classical limit of the Brillouin function that characterizes this phenomenon. This phenomenon is strongly exhibited by gadolinium complexes. A collection of non-interacting magnetic dipoles at absolute zero will exhibit this phenomenon, which requires a positive magnetic susceptibility equal to the Curie constant over temperature. For 10 points, name this phenomenon in which a material is attracted by an external magnetic field, unlike in diamagnetism.

ANSWER: paramagnetism [accept word forms; accept Pauli paramagnetism or Langevin paramagnetism or Van Vleck paramagnetism]

<AK, Physics>

10. This city’s taverns and brothels were celebrated by an anonymous wandering writer called the Archpoet, who wrote that “not a road but leads to venery (“VEH-nuh-ree”)in this city. A treaty signed in this city in 1329 split the possessions of the Wittelsbach (“VIT-uls-bahk”) dynasty between the sons and nephews of Louis IV. Boethius (“boh-EE-thee-us”) was executed in this city and was buried in its cathedral, which also contains the remains of Saint Augustine of Hippo. Romulus Augustulus officially abdicated the throne after Odoacer (“oh-doh-AY-sur”) laid siege to this city. Charlemagne’s siege of this city ended with the overthrow of (*) Desiderius. A king captured at a battle here wrote to his mother Louise of Savoy “all is lost save honor” and was forced to cede massive amounts of land in the Treaty of Madrid. For 10 points, name this capital of the Lombard Kingdom, which was also the site of a 1525 victory of Charles V over Francis I.

ANSWER: Pavia [accept Treaty of Pavia; accept Battle of Pavia; accept Ticinum]

<BL, European History>

11. Dots of this color dominate the right side of an Edo period painting bisected by a brook and consisting of two gold leaf byōbu screens made by Ogata Kōrin. A white eagle perches on a rock dotted by mushroom-like plants of this color in the Qing dynasty painting Auspicious Objects created by Giuseppe Castiglione (“joo-ZEP-ay kah-stee-LYOH-nay”). A three-inch tall headless nude torso from the city of Harappa in the Indus Valley is this color. Small illustrations accompanying illuminated manuscripts known as miniatures were named after a pigment of this color called minium. Russian icons were often placed in a corner named for this color. The pukao, or topknots, of the (*) moai of Easter Island, are this color. A pigment of this color was prepared by boiling insects imported from Mexico known as cochineal (“kotch-ih-NEEL”). The second of Hokusai’s Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji renders Mt. Fuji in this color. The earliest known cave paintings are outlines of hands in a dark shade of this color using ochre. For 10 points, name this color of Chinese seals, produced by the pigments like cinnabar and vermilion.

ANSWER: red (The first clue refers to Red and White Plum Blossoms by Ogata Kōrin.)

<AK, Painting/Sculpture>

12. A character in this play derides a woman’s idleness by saying that “a human being should be entirely beautiful: the face, the clothes, the mind, the thoughts.” At several points in this play, the script calls for the sound of a watchman’s rattle to be heard in the garden. A character named after this play’s title character is a gay middle-aged man who writes a play whose lead role is a molecule in a comedy by Christopher (*) Durang. A character in this play passionately describes the diminishing amount of green, representing forests, on a series of maps of his country from fifty years ago to the present day. A character in this play criesE finita la commedia!before leaving in a carriage, shortly before a woman repeatedly reassures the title character “We shall rest” as guitar music plays. After learning of plans to sell an estate, this play’s title character twice shoots at and misses the professor Serebryakov. In this play, Sonia fails to earn the attention of the doctor Astrov. For 10 points, name this play by Anton Chekhov.

ANSWER: Uncle Vanya [or Dyadya Vanya]
<JN, Drama>

13. Blanche Thebom (“tuh-BOM”) sang the role of this character in an English-language version of an opera in a landmark 1957 Covent Garden performance conducted by Rafael Kubelik. Nymphs cryItalie!in an oft-excerpted entr’acte (“on-TROCT”) from that opera, which stars this character in its last three acts and has the choir introduce this character in a “chant national,” after which she sings the aria Chers Tyriens (“share tee-ree-ahn”). In another opera, this character sings a da capo aria accompanied by a C-minor basso ostinato professing she will “languish until [her] grief is known.” Leopold Stokowski transcribed another aria sung by this character that repeats a descending (*) chromatic fourth beginning on G in the ground bass; that aria follows a recitative in which this character requests her attendant Belinda’s hand. This character, whose death concludes Berlioz’s Les Troyens (“lay trah-YAHN”), asks to “Remember me, but ah! Forget my fate!” in the aria “When I am laid in earth,” known as her “Lament.” For 10 points, Nahum (“NAY-um”) Tate used the story of what queen for the libretto of a Henry Purcell opera?

ANSWER: Dido [accept Didone or Didon]

<RK, Opera>

14. In a memo, a then-employee of this agency argued that because Donald Trump was “an existential threat to cultural Marxist memes,” the “deep state” was trying to destroy him. A different memo written for this agency by Robert Spalding called for the nationalization of the US’s future 5G network. An executive of this agency criticized the Johnson administration’s policies during the Vietnam War in the book based on his history doctoral dissertation, Dereliction of Duty. A panel within this agency made recommendations based on the (*) Disposition Matrix regarding targeting for the drone program. This agency conducts much of its work through the Principals Committee, which in 2017 had its composition modified to include the White House Chief Strategist, Steve Bannon. A former executive of this agency allegedly met with Sergei Kislyak and lied about it to Mike Pence, leading to his ouster. For 10 points, identify this body of the Executive Office of the President, which in the Trump administration has had its work coordinated by advisors like H.R. McMaster and Mike Flynn.

ANSWER: National Security Council [or NSC; prompt on Executive Office of the President of the United States or EOP or EOPOTUS]

<MC, Current Events>

15. Defects in a pathway dependent on this protein may result in the vulva-less “bag of worms” phenotype in C. elegans. Murakoshi et al developed a single molecule variant of FRET (“fret”) utilizing a YFP-tagged line of KB cells to observe the activation of signaling complexes containing this protein. The scaffold protein KSR is named for its suppression of this protein. This protein is rendered constitutively active in its G12V mutation, and different isoforms of this protein are associated with the (*) Harvey and Kirstin types of a certain disease. Lisch nodules in the iris and “café au lait” (“kah-FAY oh LAY”) spots are symptoms of a disease caused by the absence of a regulator of this protein that functions through the action of an arginine-finger motif. The activation of this protein is mediated by GAP and GEF proteins, and this activator of the MAP (“map”) kinase cascade is mutated in nearly all cases of pancreatic cancer. For 10 points, name this G-protein and oncogene named for its discovery in rat sarcomas.

ANSWER: Ras [accept H-ras or K-ras or N-ras] (The diseases mentioned are Harvey/Kirstin sarcoma and neurofibromatosis-1, respectively.)

<RH, Biology>

16. A metatheorem in NBG theory states that for every statement in which this process is only done over a collection s, there will exist a class consisting of s that satisfies the statement. George Boolos proposed a “plural” form of this process, arguing that higher-order “monadic” theories are only ontologically committed to theories in which this process is done merely to properties. This process, which can be described using Henkin semantics or standard semantics in some theories, is done on sets in Von-Neumann-Bernays-Godel theory. This process can only be done over (*) individuals, and not relations, in first-order logic. This process binds elements from a domain of discourse to an open formula, and is generally done using symbols that resemble a backwards “E” or an upside-down “A.” For 10 points, name this process in logic that is done using “existential” and “universal” elements.

ANSWER: quantification

<IJ, Math>

17. Black Democrats and Republicans, including Russell Sugarmon, ran on a united “Volunteer Ticket” for this city’s 1959 municipal elections. The decision in Northcross v. Board of Education desegregated this city’s public schools. Black workers in this city marched from Clayborn Temple to gain recognition for their chapter of the AFSCME. By withholding troops from this city, General George Stoneman exacerbated a massacre of black people here. After Echol Cole and Robert Walker were crushed in a garbage compactor in this city, striking (*) sanitation workers marched in its streets holding signs reading “I am a man!” In response to an event in this city, an impromptu speech quoting Aeschylus (“ESS-kuh-lus”) was delivered on a flatbed truck in Indianapolis by Robert F. Kennedy. For 10 points, name this city home to the Lorraine Motel, where Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated.

ANSWER: Memphis, Tennessee

<EC, American History>

18. Leonardo da Vinci and Peter the Great clash with this person in a trilogy by Dmitry Merezhkovsky (“mair-ezh-KOFF-skee”) partially titled for this person. A woman reluctantly reads a story about one of this man’s accomplishments to a desperate man who kisses her feet and, at the very end of the novel, procures the book containing that story from under his pillow while in a prison hospital. At Patriarch’s Ponds, a poet whose nom de plume means (*) “Homeless” discusses this man but is interrupted by a character who recounts an event from this man’s life as if he was actually there. In a chapter from the section “Pro and Contra,” a character imitates one of this man’s gestures by kissing his brother on the lips, to which his brother jokingly responds “That’s plagiarism!” This man is whipped by Mark Ratslayer in a novel whose main plot alternates with scenes from this figure’s trial, The Master and Margarita. For 10 points, name this religious figure who is arrested in Seville in the parable of “The Grand Inquisitor” from The Brothers Karamazov.

ANSWER: Jesus Christ [accept either underlined portion; or Yeshua Ha-Nazri]
<RK, Long Fiction>

19. This figure conjured a bull with gold and silver horns during a magic contest, which was followed by a sword duel in which he beheaded the same opponent, prompting him to flee a vengeful army by flying home in the form of an eagle. After coming late to a feast, this figure used a hook to fish serpents from his pitcher before beheading them and drinking the remaining beer. This figure bewitched all the dogs and men of a foreign location, but neglected to do the same to a feeble shepherd who later sent a serpent into his heart and pushed his body into a river. This man’s mother then noticed a bleeding (*) brush and used a rake to gather the pieces of his body, which was brought to life with honey. This man struggled to capture the elk of Hisi in the snow as part of his wooing of Louhi’s daughter, during which he later attempted to hunt the black swan of Tuonela. For 10 points, name this hero who accompanied Väinämöinen and Ilmarinen during the theft of the Sampo in the Kalevala.

ANSWER: Lemminkäinen [also accept Kaukomieli, Kaukamoinen, Ahti Saarelainen, or Lemminki]

<JX, Legends>

20. Members of this sect worship God as a triad of the Meaning, the Name, and the Gate, the last of which is identified with Salman the Persian. A leader of this sect taught that Jesus was the same person as every prophet from Adam to Muhammad, as well as Socrates and Plato; that scholar was al-Khasibi. This sect was founded by Ibn Nusayr, who sometimes lends his name to this sect. A leader of this sect named al-Tabarani established this sect’s stronghold in the mountains near (*) Latakia. Though members of this sect identify as Muslims, they observe Christian holidays and drink consecrated wine in a mass-like ceremony. A fatwa issued by the Lebanese imam Musa al-Sadr in 1973 led to the recognition of this sect’s legitimacy by mainstream Twelver Shias. For 10 points, name this sect of Shia Islam that has ruled Syria following the rise of the Assad family.

ANSWER: Alawites [or Alawis; accept Nusayris before “Nusayr” is read; prompt on Shias or Twelvers or Twelver Shias before they are read]

<WC, Religion>


1. In this process, autoinducers like halogenated furanones and N-acyl homoserine lactones are secreted as signaling peptides. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this process in which a high concentration of autoinducers leads to a change in an organism's behavior.

ANSWER: quorum sensing [or QS; prompt on chemotaxis]

[10] Quorum sensing was discovered in Allivibrio fischeri, a bacterium that uses it exclusively for transcription of luciferase when population densities are high. Luciferase catalyzes this process in which an organism emits light.

ANSWER: bioluminescence [or chemiluminescence; prompt on luminescence]

[10] The Las and Rhl systems produce three different autoinducers, including the quinolone-derivative PQS, in this gram-negative bacterium. High concentrations of those molecules indicate biofilm formation due to this bacterium.

ANSWER: Pseudomonas aeruginosa [or P. aeruginosa; prompt on Pseudomonas]

<AK, Biology>

2. This concept in Buddhist logic asserts that the four possible forms of a proposition P are [read slowly] “P,” “not P,” “P and not P,” and “neither P nor not P.” For 10 points each:

[10] Name this concept that was used in a negative form in the Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: “Neither from itself, nor from another, nor from both, nor without a cause, does anything, anywhere, ever, arise.”

ANSWER: catuṣkoṭi (“chah-toosh-KOH-tee”) [or chatushkoti; accept tetralemma; accept fourfold negation]

[10] The aforementioned Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way was authored by this Indian Buddhist philosopher, who founded the Madhyamaka, or “middle way” school of Buddhism.

ANSWER: Nagarjuna

[10] The Madhyamaka school is considered to be part of this branch of Buddhism, which emphasizes the study of the Perfection of Wisdom sutras. This “Great Vehicle” branch is often contrasted with Theravada Buddhism.

ANSWER: Mahayana Buddhism

<WC, Religion>

3. This technique computes a second-order correlation function that equals the time-averaged autocorrelation of intensity of laser light over the time averaged intensity squared. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this technique. In this technique, a second-order correlation function is related to a first order correlation function expressed as the negative exponential of a power series in terms of the delay time tau. That is the cumulant method.

ANSWER: dynamic light scattering [or DLS]

[10] Dynamic light scattering can be used to measure dispersity, which is the variation of this quantity for the monomers of a polymer. This quantity can be measured in daltons or grams per mole.

ANSWER: molecular weight [or molecular mass; or molar mass]

[10] Examples of these compounds used in radical polymerization include AIBN and benzoyl peroxide, which are photolytically cleaved to catalyze the first step of radical polymerization.

ANSWER: initiators [or initiation]

<AK, Chemistry>

4. This organization distributed underground publications like Robotnik, which were colloquially called bibuła (“bee-BOO-wah”), or blotting paper. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this Polish union led by Lech Wałęsa (“vah-WEN-suh”) which used nonviolent resistance to help topple its country’s communist regime.

ANSWER: Solidarity [or Solidarność; or Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity"; or Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność]

[10] The Solidarity movement included a group named [this adjective] Alternative, which used tactical frivolity by drawing graffiti of dwarves and handing out free toilet paper. The fraudulent election of a presidential candidate from the Party of Regions sparked a 2004 revolution named for this adjective.

ANSWER: orange [accept Orange Alternative or Pomarańczowa Alternatywa; accept Orange Revolution; or Pomarancheva revolyutsiya]

[10] Solidarity was greatly influenced by this Polish philosopher, who argued in “Theses on Hope and Hopelessness” that independent social groups must display courage in the face of the ruling power’s lies. He also wrote the three-volume history Main Currents of Marxism.

ANSWER: Leszek Kołakowski (“LESH-ek koh-wuh-KOFF-skee”)

<EC, European History>

5. In this book’s second section, titled “Yielding Place for New,” the author discusses various invented works of pulp fiction such as “Death Cab for Cutie” that are “invitations to a candy floss world.” For 10 points each:

[10] Name this Richard Hoggart book that examines how the “massification” and “Americanisation” of British culture have uprooted the values of “An Older Order.”

ANSWER: The Uses of Literacy

[10] The Uses of Literacy is subtitled for “Aspects” of this group’s life. A statistical study of these people by Friedrich Engels is titled for their “Condition.”

ANSWER: the English working class [accept “Aspects of Working-Class Life”; accept The Condition of the Working Class in England]

[10] This New Left author attempted to “rescue… the Luddite cropper… from the enormous condescension of posterity” in his The Making of the English Working Class, which reevaluates the development of working class consciousness.

ANSWER: E.P. Thompson [or Edward Palmer Thompson]
<RK, Social Science>

6. A flow chart created by this man features phrases such as “Japanese Prints” and “Near-Eastern Art” in red outlined boxes, with one labeled “Machine [A]esthetic” from which several arrows spring. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this critic who wrote the catalogue Picasso: Fifty Years of His Art. He was dismissed from his position as a Manhattan museum director after a poorly received exhibition of the work of Morris Hirshfield.

ANSWER: Alfred H. Barr, Jr. [or Alfred Hamilton Barr, Jr.]

[10] Barr served as the first director of this Manhattan museum, home to such monumental works of twentieth-century art as Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (“lay dum-wah-ZEL dah-vin-YOHN”) and The Persistence of Memory.

ANSWER: the MoMA [or the Museum of Modern Art]

[10] Barr’s exhibit Cubism and Abstract Art featured a Picasso painting of one of these objects. Michael Baxandall neuropsychologically analyzed a nail in a Braque painting of one of them; Braque also paired one of these objects with a candlestick.

ANSWER: violin [accept Violin and Candlestick; accept Violin and Pitcher]

<AK, Painting/Sculpture>

7. The captain of this ship, William McGonagle, received the Medal of Honor for saving the lives of many crewmembers aboard it. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this ship bombed by Israeli aircraft in 1967, killing thirty-four people. Officially, the attack on this ship was deemed a case of mistaken identity, though it may have been to cover up the forthcoming invasion of the Golan Heights.


[10] The USS Liberty was attacked during this brief war, which began with the destruction of Egypt’s air force in a preemptive strike called Operation Focus.

ANSWER: Six-Day War [or Milhemet Sheshet HaYamim; or 1967 Arab–Israeli War or Ḥarb 1967 before “1967”; or an-Naksah; prompt on “Arab–Israeli War”; do not prompt on or accept “al-Nakba”]

[10] Among the people who refused to accept the Israeli explanation for the attack was this man, who said that the sinking could not have been “by accident or by some trigger-happy local commander.” A series of official diplomatic correspondences between him and South Korean ambassador Yang You Chan gave Japan control of the Liancourt (“lee-on-CORE”) Rocks.

ANSWER: Dean Rusk [or David Dean Rusk; accept Rusk Documents; accept Rusk-Yang Correspondence]

<BL, World History>

8. This author was fired from his teaching job and moved to England because of the sexual explicitness of his novel The Dark. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this Irish author who wrote about Michael Moran, an ex-IRA member whose daughters try to cheer him up by recreating his old Monaghan (“MUN-uh-hun”) Day celebrations, in the novel Amongst Women.

ANSWER: John McGahern (“muh-GAH-hurn”)

[10] This other modern Irish author wrote about Eilis Lacey emigrating to the U.S. in Brooklyn, but is better known for fictionalizing the life of Henry James in The Master.

ANSWER: Colm Tóibín (“KAW-lum toh-BEAN”)

[10] Tóibín’s Love in a Dark Time includes essays on a number of people with this quality, including Oscar Wilde, who was arrested for “gross indecency,” a charge used to persecute people with this quality.

ANSWER: being gay [or homosexuality; accept clear equivalents]
<RK, Long Fiction>

9. As director of the Paris Opera Ballet from 1983 to 1992, this man modernized the French classical style with what some label the École Française (“ay-KOHL frahn-SEZ”). For 10 points each:

[10] Name this Soviet dancer who left the Bolshoi Company to study at the Vaganova Academy and join the Kirov Ballet. He maintained a longtime partnership with Margot Fonteyn at the Royal Ballet, and defected to the West before Mikhail Baryshnikov.

ANSWER: Rudolf Nureyev

[10] As director of the Kirov Ballet, Agrippina Vaganova revived the version of this ballet choreographed by Lev Ivanov and Marius Petipa with a 1933 production that starred her pupil Galina Ulanova as Odette.

ANSWER: Swan Lake

[10] This extremely technical excerpt from a different Petipa ballet requires the ballerina to perform a set of difficult altitude balances and promenades as she’s approached by four different suitors on her sixteenth birthday.

ANSWER: the Rose Adagio (from Sleeping Beauty)

<RK, Other Art (Dance)>

10. This man supposedly stated that “England has had its luckiest escape since the Armada” after his invading fleet was dispersed by a storm in Bantry Bay. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this leader of the Society of United Irishmen who allied with France’s Committee of Public Safety to liberate Ireland. He was sentenced to death but either committed suicide or was tortured to death before his execution.

ANSWER: Wolfe Tone [or Theobald Wolfe Tone]

[10] This general commanded British forces against Wolfe Tone’s rebellion at Killala Bay. Seventeen years earlier, he surrendered at Yorktown during the American Revolution.

ANSWER: Lord Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis

[10] The rebels’ largest stronghold in County Wexford was destroyed in this decisive British victory, during which Gerard Lake committed many war crimes. Because it was led by United Irishmen Uprising veteran Phillip Cunningham, the Castle Hill Rebellion was dubbed the “second” battle of this name.

ANSWER: Battle of Vinegar Hill [accept Second Battle of Vinegar Hill]

<RD, European History>

11. A warrior named Hidesato visits a palace at this location and is tasked with killing a giant centipede, which he does by licking the arrow he fires at its head. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this location. Hidesato kills that centipede at the nearby Mount Mikami and is given a bag of rice. This locations shares its name with a string instrument played by bards during recitations of The Tale of the Heike.

ANSWER: Lake Biwa

[10] The bottom of Lake Biwa was said to be the home of a large carp that fed on humans. Like the giant earthquake-causing catfish Namazu, that giant carp is part of this general group of Japanese monsters and demons.

ANSWER: yōkai

[10] According to a Chinese proverb, carp that successfully swim upstream in the Yellow River are transformed into these creatures. The king who gave Hidesato his task took the form of these creatures, like Ryūjin and Orochi.

ANSWER: dragon [or snake; or serpent; or ryū or ryō; or lóng]

<AK, Legends>

12. A book by Axel Honneth defines this concept as “forgetfulness of recognition,” citing research by Peter Hobson and Michael Tomasello. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this concept which was popularized in a chapter titled “[This concept] and the Consciousness of the Proletariat” in a 1923 book.

ANSWER: reification (“RAY-ih-fication”) [accept “Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat”]

[10] “Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat” is a chapter of this 1923 defense of Bolshevism written by György Lukács (“George LOO-kotch”).

ANSWER: History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics [or Geschichte und Klassenbewußtsein – Studien über marxistische Dialektik]

[10] Lukács introduces reification by quoting a passage from this economic treatise by Karl Marx describing how the product of an individual’s labor becomes alienated from them.

ANSWER: Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen Ökonomie [or Capital: Critique of Political Economy]
<AK, Philosophy>

13. In reflecting on this task, a character from Jeanette Winterson’s Art and Lies shouts “HOW COULD YOU HAVE DONE THIS TO MY POEMS?”, which are “more mutilated than a Saturday night whore.” For 10 points each:

[10] Name this task undertaken in a seminal 1958 book by Mary Barnard. A less literal approach to this task was taken by Anne Carson in a 2002 book that takes its title from the line “If not winter… no pain.”

ANSWER: translating Sappho [or producing translations of Sappho; prompt on partial answers]

[10] Anne Carson meditated on her brother’s death in Nox, which opens with a poem in which this author describes carrying his own brother’s ashes, ending with the line “hail and farewell.” He adapted Sappho 31 into his own fifty-first poem.

ANSWER: Catullus [or Gaius Valerius Catullus]

[10] This work reproduces Sappho 31, asking the reader “Are you not amazed at how she evokes soul, body, hearing, tongue, sight, skin?” and comparing it to Homer’s description of the “most savage aspects” of storms.

ANSWER: On the Sublime [or Peri hypsous] (by Longinus)

<RK, Poetry>

14. A composer once stated that “the sound of [these things] dominated all the cities of Russia I used to know… no composer could escape their influence.” For 10 points each:

[10] Name these objects that are also imitated by the soloist in the first eight bars of the Moderato first movement of a Russian composer’s C minor second piano concerto.

ANSWER: church bells

[10] That Piano Concerto No. 2 and a choral symphony titled “The Bells” were written by this composer, whose other work for piano and orchestra includes Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini.

ANSWER: Sergei Rachmaninoff [or Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff]

[10] Rachmaninoff’s Opus 3, No. 2 Prelude is nicknamed “The Bells of Moscow” for opening with these three descending notes spread across three octaves, with the last introducing the piece’s home key.

ANSWER: A, G-sharp, C-sharp [do not accept or prompt on out of order or partial answers]

<AK, Classical Music>

15. These features are hypothesized to deepen from elevated abrasion from rock avalanching. For 10 points each:

[10] Name these amphitheatre-shaped basins that form the head of alpine glaciers. Lakes called tarns often develop in these features after glaciation ends.

ANSWER: cirque [or corrie; or cwm]

[10] An alternative hypothesis describes how upslope water drainage causes variable water pressure, resulting in this weathering mechanism that is heightened in cirques. This process involves the removal of large rock masses from the bed.

ANSWER: plucking [or quarrying]

[10] The growth of ice lenses in the unglaciated region the between the glacier and one of these regions is responsible for rock supply upslope of the cirque. These regions are defined by the presence of permafrost but little permanent surface ice.

ANSWER: periglacials

<JN, Other Science (Earth)>

16. In Seeing Like a State, James Scott argues that the employment of this type of map contributed to a decline in traditional land tenure arrangements, which it was unable to capture. For 10 points each:

[10] Identify this type of map, which shows the locations of parcels of land, who owns them, and sometimes their value. Scott argues that these types of maps were used to help bring about a shift from communal to individual taxation.

ANSWER: cadastral maps [or cadasters; or cadastral surveys]

[10] As another example of seeing like a state, Scott cites the way in which the land of the Northwest Territory was divided into these administrative units, which were typically squares with six mile sides. This was done to make the land more easily sold as a commodity and taxed.

ANSWER: townships

[10] Scott discusses the management of these environments in Germany, which was also practiced by Gifford Pinchot (“PIN-shoh”), and which damaged their biodiversity and made traditional activities like gathering kindling difficult or impossible. A book by Eduardo Kohn argues that because these environments signify, they are able to “think.”

ANSWER: forests [or rainforests or woods]

<MC, Geography>

17. Nora Ephron describes various urban myths and recalls receiving a book on frigidity before concluding “I think they are full of shit” in 1972’s “A Few Words About Breasts,” published in this magazine. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this magazine that pioneered New Journalism with the work of Gay Talese (“tuh-LEEZ”), who wrote about a singer’s “state of anguish, deep depression, panic, even rage” in “Frank Sinatra Has a Cold.”

ANSWER: Esquire

[10] Esquire also ran Norman Mailer’s “Superman Comes to the Supermarket,” concerning this man’s presidential run. His assassination is the subject of Mailer’s later non-fiction book Oswald’s Tale.

ANSWER: John F. Kennedy [or John Fitzgerald Kennedy; or JFK]

[10] A man who excelled in this general activity was called “The Last American Hero” in a Tom Wolfe piece published in Esquire. The author of another essay instructs his English caricaturist to use Mace liberally while attending an event focused on this activity, which the author calls a “huge outdoor loony bin.”

ANSWER: racing [accept NASCAR racing or horse racing]
<RK, Misc Literature>

18. A political cartoon satirizing this entity depicts the president emptying a bag of coins into a hole. For 10 points each:

[10] Give this term for the Republican-controlled legislative entity that passed the McKinley Tariff, as well as another act giving pensions to those who served in the Civil War for at least ninety days. Democrats were prevented from using the disappearing quorum tactic to block debate in it by “Czar” Reed.

ANSWER: Billion Dollar Congress [or the 51st United States Congress]

[10] The Billion Dollar Congress was in session during the first half of this president’s term, a Republican who served in between Grover Cleveland’s non-consecutive terms.

ANSWER: Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]

[10] This Congressman tried to pass his namesake “force bill” during the Billion Dollar Congress that would have prevented the disenfranchisement of black voters, but the Senate failed to pass it. He later chaired the first committee that investigated war crimes in the Philippine-American war.

ANSWER: Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. [accept Lodge Force Bill]

<IJ, American History>

19. A writer from this country borrowed Eça de Queiroz’s (“ESS-uh duh kay-RAWSH-iz”) character Fradique Mendes for his novel Creole. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this country where António Lobo Antunes worked as a doctor, inspiring his novels Fado Alexandrino and The Land at the End of the World. Its capital names José Luandino Vieira’s short story collection Luuanda.

ANSWER: Republic of Angola

[10] A psychiatrist returns to Lisbon from wartime Angola in Lobo Antunes’ debut novel, titled for this animal’s “memory.” A José Saramago (“zhoo-ZEH suh-ruh-MAH-goo”) novel follows the journey of one of these animals from Lisbon to Vienna.

ANSWER: elephant [or elefante]

[10] Angolan novelist José Eduardo Agualusa wrote this novel in which Ludo barricades herself in her apartment for three decades starting on the eve of Angolan independence, growing vegetables and trapping pigeons for food.

ANSWER: A General Theory of Oblivion [or Teoria Geral do Esquecimento]
<JN, Long Fiction>

20. This quantity can be determined by finding the indentation size created by square pyramid shaped diamonds. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this quantity that is approximately equal to 1.854 times the applied load over the indentation area. It is most commonly applied to metals and ceramics.

ANSWER: Vickers hardness [or HV; prompt on partial answer; prompt on “diamond pyramid (hardness)”]

[10] The impact resistance of a material is most commonly measured using two tests. In the first, the load is applied perpendicularly to a suspended sample, while in the second the sample is held vertically. Name either.

ANSWER: Charpy (“shar-PEE”) V-notch test OR Izod (“EYE-zod”) test [prompt on “(V-)notch”]

[10] A third mechanical test pulls aparts the ends of a sample until failure to determine this quantity. This quantity is equal to stress over strain.

ANSWER: Young’s modulus [or elastic modulus]

<RD, Physics>

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