University of California, Berkeley
Department of Psychology

Psychology 1
Fall 2009

Midterm Examination 2

## Scoring Key and Item Analysis

In the scoring key that follows, correct answers are marked with an asterisk (*).

The preliminary scoring of the exam yielded M = 36.84, SD = 6.64, or 74% correct, which was pretty good.

Items #25 and 42 proved to be "bad" items, and were rescored correct for all responses. If you got either of these items "wrong", in terms of the preliminary scoring key posted immediately after the exam, give yourself one (1) extra point for each such item.

After rescoring, the mean rose to 38.39 (SD = 6.76), or 76%. The median score was 40, and the mode was 40 as well.

The final iteration of this feedback will include commentary on why the right answer is right, and the others wrong.

Choose the best answer to each of the following 50 questions. Questions are drawn from the text and lectures in roughly equal proportions, with the understanding that there is considerable overlap between the two sources. Usually, only one question is drawn from each major section of each chapter of the required readings; again, sometimes this question also draws on material discussed in class. Read the entire exam through before answering any questions: sometimes one question will help you answer another one.

Most questions can be correctly answered in one of two ways: (1) by fact-retrieval, meaning that you remember the answer from your reading of the text or listening to the lecture; or (2) inference, meaning that you can infer the answer from some general principle discussed in the text or lecture. If you cannot determine the correct answer by either of these methods, try to eliminate at least one option as clearly wrong: this maximizes the likelihood that you will get the correct answer by chance. Also, go with your intuitions: if you have actually done the assigned readings and attended the lectures, your "informed guesses" will likely be right more often than they are wrong.

Be sure you are using a red Scantron sheet.

Fill in the appropriate circles with a #2 pencil only.

Be sure you put your name on the front of the red Scantron sheet.

Last Name First

Be sure you put your Student ID# on both sides of the red Scantron sheet.

Use the first 8 columns & no leading zeroes.

Indicate Exam 002 (use all three digits) on the reverse side of the red Scantron sheet.

Be sure to fill in the corresponding bubbles.

1. Any act of remembering requires success at three different tasks. What are they?

a. encoding, storage, retrieval*

b. working memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

c. rehearsal, recall, recognition

d. processing, organizing, recognizing

99% of the class got this item correct; item-to-total rpb = .17.Remember the three basic causes of forgetting: that you never encoded the memory in the first place; that somehow it was lost from storage; or that, although the item is available in memory storage, it could not be accessed at the time of retrieval.

2. The capacity of working memory seems to be about __________ items.

a. three

b. seven*

c. ten

d. fifteen

100% correct, rpb = .00 (if there's no variance in one of the variables, there can be no correlation -- but note, in Item #1, that you can get a correlation even if there's almost no variance). If there's one thing to remember out of this course, it's probably "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two".

3. The recency effect can be explained as follows:

a. It is easier to "chunk" recently seen items.

b. Recently seen items proceed directly to long-term memory, whereas remote items linger in working memory.

c. The only items that do not get bumped out of working memory are the last few items in a list.*

d. Recent items do not require maintenance rehearsal, so they are more easily accessed.

76%, .34.According to theory, the primacy effect -- the advantage that items appearing early in the list have over those in the middle -- reflects retrieval from long-term (secondary) memory. Thus, any manipulation that enhances LTM, such as providing more rehearsal time, will increase the primacy effect. And according to theory, the recency effect -- the advantage that items appearing at the end of the list have over those in the middle -- reflects retrieval from short-term (primary or working) memory. Thus, any manipulation that enhances STM, such as a short retention interval or no distraction, will enhance the recency effect.

4. A sudden blow to the head often causes forgetting of the events in the few seconds or minutes that preceded the blow. This finding is most consistent with which of the following ideas about memory?

a. New memory traces require consolidation.*

b. Temporal contiguity is impressed upon the mind.

c. Memory often depends upon organizational factors.

d. There is a limit of about seven items that can be held in working memory at one time.

96%, .27.The retrograde amnesia resulting from a concussive blow to the head often extends fairly far back in time, suggesting that encoding is not an instantaneous process, but rather that new traces require some amount of time to be consolidated.

5. When a piece of information is said to be inaccessible, it

a. was never placed into long-term memory.

c. is lost forever in working memory.

d. is presently irretrievable from long-term memory.*

89%, .38.Items available in long-term memory storage may or may not be accessible on any particular attempt at retrieval.

6. Why is elaborative rehearsal effective?

a. Like maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal increases the amount of time material is in working memory.

b. Elaborative rehearsal increases the number of retrieval cues linked to the item.*

c. Elaborative rehearsal leads to shallower processing, which improves memory.

d. Elaborative rehearsal makes use of mnemonic devices, which improve memory.

87%, .28.Elaborative rehearsal isn't a matter of time, it's a matter of cognitive effort -- specifically, the amount of effort devoted to encoding the item, and relating it to what the subject already knows. The greater the amount of elaboration, the more cues will be effective to retrieve the item from storage. Elaborative processing is also known as deep processing. Elaborative rehearsal doesn't make use of mnemonic devices, but mnemonic devices require elaboration at the time of encoding.

7. If you "can't think of it now" but do remember it later, there was an initial failure of

a. encoding.

b. retention.

c. retrieval.*

d. recognition.

96%, .29.The information wasn't accessible then, but then became accessible later.

8. Which of the following is an example of a schema leading to memory error?

a. You feel as if you've been somewhere before, and so you mistakenly conclude that you dreamed about the location.

b. You mistakenly recall seeing a catcher's mitt in your baseball coach's bag.*

c. You are asked about seeing a blue bus at the scene of an accident, and this leads you to mistakenly identify the bus's color.

d. All of the above answers are correct.

51%, .51.Schemata (schemas) are generalized knowledge structures that form the cognitive background for perception and memory (and, for that matter, thinking). Based on past experience, you've developed a schema for the kinds of things that baseball coaches have in their bags. And this schematic knowledge is imported into memory, leading you to falsely remember details that are consistent with the schema.

9. H. M., the famous neurological patient who has serious and permanent anterograde amnesia, can remember some things. For the most part, these things are

a. aspects of declarative memory acquired prior to his surgery and procedural memory of things learned both before and since his surgery.*

b. procedural memory for most things acquired prior to his surgery and episodic memory of things learned both before and since his surgery.

c. procedural memory for most things acquired prior to his surgery and semantic memory for events that have happened since his surgery.

d. verbal memories prior to his surgery and episodic memories since then.

84%, .49.H.M. lost the ability to encode new episodes in memory, and episodic memories are declarative memories. But he retained the ability to learn new skills, which are represented by procedural memories. He just didn't have the declarative knowledge that he had acquired this procedural knowledge!

10. Any time we try to solve a problem, judge the truth of an assertion, or weigh the costs and benefits of an important decision, we are engaging in

a. directed thinking.*

b. analogical representation.

c. automaticity.

d. mental rotation.

81%, .42.Directed thinking is goal-directed thinking: the task before us requires us to solve a problem, or make a judgment, and we do it.

11. On the door to the women's room is a silhouette of a person in a skirt. This exemplifies a(n) __________ representation.

a. analogical*

b. symbolic

c. hypothetical

d. mental

65%, .52.Analogical representations somehow resemble the things they represent. Therefore, the silhouette is an analogical representation. The word "Women" doesn't resemble any woman, so it's a symbolic representation. Words are symbolic representations. Pictures, or images of any kind, are analogical representations.

12. In the sentence "The zebra is suspicious of the zookeeper," the phrase "is suspicious of the zookeeper" serves as

a. the proposition.

b. the subject.

c. the predicate.*

d. a relational concept.

72%, .30.Sentences represent propositions, and propositions consist of a subject noun phrase like "the zebra" and a predicate verb phrase, and verb phrases consist of a verb phrase like "is suspicious" and another noun phrase like "of the zookeeper". The verb "is suspicious "could be considered to be a relational concept, because it relates the two noun phrases, but the entire verb phrase is the predicate of the sentence.

13. When solving both anagram problems and problems involving spatial mazes, one is guided by the

a. eventual goal.

b. current state of affairs.

c. same set of brain processes.

d. both a and b.*

93%, .15.Think of means-end problem-solving, which represents the current state, and the goal state, calculates the difference between them, takes some action that reduces the difference by some amount, and then starts the process all over again.

14. You want to decide whether you believe that pretty people are better singers. To answer this question, you recall all the people you've seen and heard sing lately, then judge how well they performed. This strategy is referred to as

a. incubation.

b. restructuring.

c. the availability heuristic.*

d. chunking.

95%, .40.Whenever a judgment involves the amount or ease of retrieval from memory, we're talking about the availability heuristic. Incubation refers to the enhancement of problem-solving that occurs when the subject turns his attention away from the problem for a period of time; presumably this allows for some restructuring to occur.

15. Research on framing indicates that people are most likely to

a. avoid losses.*

b. increase gains.

c. carefully weigh the losses against the gains.

d. make irrational choices when on a winning streak.

60%, .31.Of course people want to increase their gains. Any theory of judgment and decision-making assumes that. But prospect theory, as a specific theory, holds that people are generally risk averse, especially in the context of gains -- which means that they want to avoid losses. That's why people are not so risk averse in the context of losses -- they want to avoid sure losses.

16. What condition is often seen in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex?

a. They will perseverate.*

b. They will have difficulty hearing.

c. They lose the ability to form visual images.

d. They are better at working on a series of different tasks rather than repeating the same task several times.

60%, .49.The prefrontal cortex seems to be involved in mediating executive control. So people with damage to the prefrontal cortex will typically perseverate on a task: they keep performing it the same way, even when they persist in coming up with the wrong answer, and even though a different approach would be more effective or efficient.

17. How many morphemes are contained in the word bakers?

a. one

b. two

c. three*

d. zero

49%, .32.Morphemes are the smallest linguistic units that carry meaning. So they're distinct from letters, phonemes, and syllables -- none of which carry meaning. There are 3 morphemes in bakers:
1. bake, referring to the thing you do to bread and cake and cookies.
2. -er, referring to the person who does the baking.
3. -s, meaning that there's more than one such person.

18. Which of the following concepts is most consistent with the basic ideas of the prototype theory of meaning?

a. dictionary definitions

b. family resemblance structures*

c. bundles of semantic features

d. prescriptive rules

61%, .23.Dictionary definitions are good examples of the definitional theory of meaning; so is the idea that concepts are proper sets defined by features that are singly necessary and jointly sufficient for category membership. These features, in turn, can be thought of as bundles of semantic features that are linked to the concept in semantic memory. In the dictionary, birds are warm-blooded vertebrates with feathers and wings. But according to the prototype theory of meaning, we mentally represent categories as fuzzy sets, that have a family resemblance structure. My prototypical bird might be something that is small like a sparrow, but sings like a robin.

19. Two-day-old babies were exposed to recordings of normal speech and to recordings of speech played backwards. What changes occurred in the blood flow in the babies' brains?

a. When they heard the backwards recording of speech, there was an increase in blood flow to the right hemisphere.

b. When they heard the recording of normal speech, there was an increase in blood flow to the right hemisphere.

c. When they heard the backwards recording of speech, there was an increase in blood flow to the left hemisphere.

d. When they heard the recording of normal speech, there was an increase in blood flow to the left hemisphere.*

63%, .44.Babies tend to pay attention when they encounter something that is surprising, unexpected, or puzzling. And increased attention is generally marked by an increase in blood flow to some part of the brain. Human speech and language tends to be "localized" in the left cerebral hemisphere. Therefore, when the babies were presented with the normal speech, they listened, and this active listening activated the speech and language centers in the left hemisphere. Backwards speech was just unintelligible, so they ignored it. This is one piece of evidence for an innate capacity for language.

20. What is true of American Sign Language (ASL)?

a. ASL is a system of easy-to-comprehend gestures, somewhat similar to the gestures hearing persons use when they play charades.

b. ASL lacks the functional morphemes and grammatical principles that characterize spoken communication.

c. ASL includes morphemes, ways of building up complex words out of simple ones, and grammatical rules for combining words into sentences.*

d. ASL is a manual version of translated English, based on finger spelling and supplemented with charade-like gestures.

84%, .47.ASL is a real language -- but it's a gestural language, not a vocal language. It's got the gestural equivalent of morphemes, and its own rules of syntax for combining morphemes into words, and words into sentences.

21. English, Japanese, and Korean speakers use different words to describe spatial locations such as "in," "on," and "above." What differences did researchers find with respect to how subjects from these cultures think about spatial position?

a. Subjects from all three cultures seem to think about spatial position in much the same way.*

b. Japanese subjects are the most accurate in their ability to detect alterations in the spatial location of an object.

c. English subjects are the most accurate in their ability to detect alterations in the spatial location of an object.

d. Korean subjects are the most accurate in their ability to detect alterations in the spatial location of an object.

85%, .30.Despite the mythology that surrounds the "Sapir-Whorf" hypothesis of linguistic determinism (or, at least, linguistic relativism), language doesn't seem to constrain thought. Just because the words are different, doesn't mean that the thoughts are also different.

22. When people attempt to determine why an individual behaved as he or she did, they tend to

a. be equally likely to infer situational or dispositional causes.

b. infer dispositional causes more readily than situational causes.*

c. infer situational causes more readily than dispositional causes.

d. overlook both situational and dispositional causes in assigning reasons for behavior.

88%, .44.In causal attribution, people tend to make the Fundamental Attribution Error -- to explain people's behavior in terms of their traits, attitudes, and other internal behavioral dispositions, rather than in terms of situational factors. Why did your roommate fail the test? Because he's not very smart. This doesn't always happen, and if you take the Social Cognition course you'll find out that there are severe limitations to the FAE, but at this level it's important to know what it is.

23. According to the cognitive interpretation of the actor-observer bias, we

a. pay more attention to our own behavior than we do to the behavior of others.

b. need to preserve cognitive consistency between our behaviors and our dispositions.

d. tend to see others as members of out-groups and apply biased schemas to their behavior.

35%, .22.The FAE doesn't always happen. For example, it seems that we make dispositional attributions about the behavior of other people, but situational attributions about our own behavior. Your roommate failed the test because he's stupid, but you failed the test because the teacher asked questions that were too hard. Again, there is some controversy about this, but at this level the actor-observer difference is something we want you to know about.

24. Comments made by college and professional sports figures indicate that they tend to attribute

a. their successes to external factors (e.g., luck), and their failures to internal factors (e.g., skill).

b. both their successes and failures to external factors.

c. their successes to internal factors, and their failures to external factors.*

d. both their successes and failures to internal factors.

92%, .37.The actor-observer difference is especially strong when we're trying to explain our successes and failures. We tend to explain our successes in dispositional terms (I passed the test because I'm a genius), and we tend to explain away our failures in situational terms (I only got a C because the teacher asked questions that were too hard).

25. Attitudes differ from beliefs in that

a. beliefs are more strongly held.

b. attitudes are more strongly held.

c. attitudes include feelings or evaluations.*

d. attitudes and beliefs are the same.

45%, .18. A bad item. But I don't know why. Attitudes, being pro or con, for or against various things (like war, or tuition increases), are inherently evaluative and emotional in nature.

26. According to Petty and Cacioppo, the central route to persuasion involves

a. careful attention to the message and its arguments.*

b. subtle attempts to change our attitudes.

c. appealing to our emotions.

d. changing our attitudes by changing our behaviors.

40%, .42.Petty and Cacioppo distinguished between two reasons that people are influenced by persuasive communications. Persuasion by the central route occurs when they pay careful attention to the arguments, and evaluate them carefully as well. Persuasion by the peripheral route occurs when people allow themselves to be swayed simply by authority figures, or the most recent thing we read on the Internet.

27. According to the James-Lange theory of emotions,

a. our emotional response to a situation leads to a set of physiological responses associated with that emotion.

b. our behavioral and physiological responses to a situation precede and determine the emotion we feel in that situation.*

c. the behavioral, physiological, and cognitive components of emotion occur simultaneously.

d. our cognitive evaluation of a situation leads to emotional and behavioral responses.

83%, .46.James and Lange reversed the usual relationship between emotion and behavior. Whereas we traditionally think that we run from the bear because we're afraid, J&L proposed that we feel afraid because we notice that we're running. Or, more generally, that our perception of our facial and other motor responses to a stimulus (what James focused on) or of our autonomic physiological reactions to a stimulus (what Lange focused on) creates our emotional state. For J&L, the behavior -- whether covert or overt -- comes first, the emotion comes later.

28. According to Schachter and Singer, our emotions are based upon

a. physical behavior.

c. a physiological response and cognitive evaluation.*

d. reasoning and decision making.

70%, .35.S&S proposed a cognitive theory of emotion. For them, the physiological component of emotion was undifferentiated arousal -- that is, a physiological state that is not different whether we're happy or sad, disgusted or angry. What creates the emotion is our interpretation of the environmental context in which that arousal occurs. If I'm aroused while watching a comedy, I feel happy. If I'm aroused while watching a tragedy, I feel sad.

29. When is informational influence most likely to result in conformity?

a. when men are conforming in the presence of women

b. when one is confused about what the correct answer to a question might be*

c. when one is worried about appearing foolish in front of others

d. when one is surrounded by people regarded as inferior in status

62%, .38.People are more likely to conform when the judgment is difficult, or the problem is confusing -- circumstances under which the stimulus information is inadequate, and the person turns to other people for additional information. Fear of embarrassment may lead to conformity, but it's not an informational influence.

30. Leaders tend to be most effective when

b. group members do not get along that well and are therefore looking for someone to take control.

d. they are physically stronger than their potential followers.

49%, .27.Leaders tend to be more outgoing and dominant, and also are perceived as more intelligent, but their dominance is more psychological than physical. And there are also certain situations that tend to foster leadership -- that is, circumstances when people will look to a leader and follow his or her guidance. These situational circumstances include clear-cut (rather than ambiguous) task, and group members who get along with each other and with the leader. Leadership isn't all in the leader; it's also in the situation, and in the interaction between the person and the situation.

31. Research has shown that the presence of other people intensifies performance on a task when that task is

a. boring.

b. simple.*

c. complex.

d. unfamiliar.

40%, .35.There are two "social presence" effects -- effects of the presence of an audience on human performance. Social facilitation -- the audience intensifies performance -- occurs when the task is simple, or performed automatically, or performed by an expert. Social inhibition -- the audience impairs performance -- occurs when the task is complex, or performed consciously, or performed by a novice.

32. A key characteristic of crowd behavior is deindividuation, in which

a. each individual loses his or her own identity and becomes an anonymous member.*

b. each individual contributes equally to a group identity for the crowd.

c. a panicky response by an individual spreads to other individuals in the crowd.

d. each individual tries to serve his or her own best interests rather than the best interests of the crowd.

93%, .27.De-individuation is a state in which a person "forgets" that he or she is an individual, with his or her own beliefs and goals, and instead perceives him- or herself as just part of the crowd, a cog in the machine, doing what everyone else is doing.

33. Which of the following clearly illustrates or involves pluralistic ignorance?

a. A bystander decides not to help a car accident victim because others are present who will undoubtedly do so.

b. A passerby decides a man lying on the sidewalk is not in trouble because nobody else in the vicinity is stopping to assist him.*

c. A bystander does not help a heart attack victim because he is not sure how to administer CPR.

d. All of the above answers are correct.

79%, .38.In studies of altruism and bystander intervention, pluralistic ignorance occurs when the situation is unclear and each person in the group looks to others for clarifying information. Diffusing of responsibility refers to the assumption that someone else has already offered help. Another impediment to altruism is the individual's belief that s/he lacks competence to help. But this question is about pluralistic ignorance, where there are other people around, and it's clear that nobody is helping. Therefore, the perception is that the man doesn't need, or perhaps deserve, help.

34. Bob is attracted to Louise, a woman in his class. Research suggests that if he wants Louise to be attracted to him, he should

a. play up the way in which they differ from each other.

b. express similar interests to hers.*

c. exclaim his love for her in class.

d. be coy and ignore her.

98%, .24.We like people who are like us. That's the basis for the most effective dating sites, which try to match people based on similarity of traits, interests, and attitudes.

35. Consistent with the familiarity hypothesis, we prefer to look at

a. pictures of ourselves and our friends rather than mirror images of both.

b. mirror images of ourselves and our friends rather than pictures of both.

c. pictures of ourselves and mirror images of our friends.

d. mirror images of ourselves and pictures of our friends.*

90%, .33.Familiarity breeds liking. This is the basis of the "mere exposure effect". So we prefer mirror images of ourselves, because that's how we're used to seeing ourselves; but we prefer straight shots of our friends, because that's how we're used to seeing them.

36. Quetelet made graphs of frequency distributions for many human attributes�height, weight, and so on�and found that, if the sample was large enough, most of these distributions were

a. positively skewed.

b. bimodal�that is, they possessed two different most common scores.

c. bell-shaped.*

d. negatively skewed.

87%, .32.The distribution of most human biological traits, like height and weight, follows the normal or "bell-shaped" curve. Beginning with Galton, psychologists have generally made the assumption that the same is true of psychological traits, like intelligence or extraversion. Very few people at the very low end, very few people at the very high end, most people gathered in the middle.

37. Evolution requires

a. environmentally determined variation in traits.

b. environmentally determined stability in traits.

c. genetically determined variation in traits.*

d. genetically determined stability in traits.

63%, .32.Contra Lamarck, there is no inheritance of acquired characteristics. So evolution by natural selection can only operate on genetic variation. The environment selects for certain traits, to be sure, but the only traits that can be passed down through natural selection are those traits that are genetically determined -- because the parent passes genes to its offspring, and those genes are the source of the variation that was adaptive in the first place. If a parent loses a leg due to some accident, that loss isn't inherited by the offspring. And if a parent learns something, that isn't passed on through evolution either -- the intergenerational transmission of acquired characteristics requires social learning, not evolution.

38. What is the correlation between someone's IQ and subsequent measures of academic ability, such as grade-point average?

a. �.50

b. �.80

c. +.10

d. +.50*

81%, .45.IQ tests are validated, in part, by their ability to predict relevant social outcomes, such as grade-point average or other measures of academic achievement. So the correlation in question should be positive -- high IQ, high GPA. And the correlation ought to be at least modest in size. A correlation of r = .10 is just too small to provide substantial evidence of external validity.

39. Charles Spearman inferred the existence of a general intelligence g factor from

a. the positive intercorrelations for tests of different intellectual skills.*

b. the fact that different tests tap different specific abilities.

c. the tendency for people to score well on either verbal or mathematical tests, but not on both.

d. high reliability coefficients for the results of individual tests.

82%, .57.Spearman noticed that all the different tests of intelligence correlated positively with each other, suggesting that a single ability -- general intelligence, or g -- ran through them. However, other theorists argued that some of these intercorrelations were higher than others, suggesting that different tests could be clustered together as measures of different types of intelligence, such as verbal or nonverbal.

40. Crystallized intelligence refers to

a. aspects of intelligence that are genetically determined and resistant to environmental influence.

b. an individual's repertoire of previously acquired information and cognitive skills.*

c. the reduction in intellectual fluidity that occurs with aging.

d. the static nature of intellectual ability after puberty.

78%, .37.Cattell distinguished between raw, presumably innate, "fluid" intelligence, which could be applied to a wide variety of problems and situations, somewhat like Spearman's g, and "crystallized" intelligence, which is a product of learning and experience. He meant the chemical analogy: that crystals precipitate out of fluids.

41. When we compare the similarity in intelligence scores for identical twins reared together with identical twins reared apart, we find that identical twins reared apart

a. are significantly less similar than are identical twins reared together.

b. are nearly as similar as identical twins reared together.*

c. are as similar as identical twins reared together in mathematical skills but significantly different in verbal abilities.

d. score significantly lower than identical twins reared together.

87%, .42.Most MZ twins share genes and environments, so we don't know exactly what to make of the fact that MZ twins tend to be more similar to each other on various psychological traits (like intelligence or extraversion) than DZ twins. But there are cases where, for whatever reason, MZ twins are actually reared apart, so that -- at least in theory -- they share genes but not environments. And the fact that MZ twins reared apart are nearly as similar to each other as are MZ twins reared together has been taken as evidence for a strong genetic contribution to individual differences in intelligence.

42. The importance of environmental factors in the development of intelligence is illustrated by the fact that

a. the intelligence scores of adopted children are correlated with the intelligence scores of their adoptive mothers.

b. the intelligence scores of fraternal twins are more highly correlated than those of non-twin siblings.

c. the longer children are in impoverished environments, the lower their intelligence scores are likely to be.

d. All of the above.*

50%, .10. A bad item. I don't intentionally repeat items, but I do draw some items from a bank of test questions supplied by the publisher, and this one was, apparently, so nice I picked it twice. As some of you noticed, the preliminary scoring key was wrong: the correct answer is obviously D, not C. Adopted children do resemble their adoptive parents in IQ, even if they also resemble their biological parents, and the resemblance between adopted children and their adoptive parents, with whom they share no genes, must be environmental. Fraternal twins, who are raised in the same environment (we'll talk more about this in the lectures on Psychological Development), are more alike in IQ than nontwins, even though fraternal twins are no more similar, genetically, then nontwins are. And increasing exposure to an impoverished environment is associated with lower IQ scores.-- just as increasing exposure to a rich environment is associated with higher ones. So why am I giving credit for all responses, not just D? For some reason, 43% of the class went for C, which is a point discussed at some length in the textbook. But you'd really have to work through Figure 14.12 to understand that A and B are correct, to. The item was so nice I picked it twice, but in the end it's just not a very good item.

43. Walter Mischel has argued that personality tests have low predictive validities because

a. these tests were designed to yield construct validity rather than predictive validity.

b. these tests are based on the assumption that behavior is consistent across situations.*

c. these test scores contain numerous errors of measurement.

d. subjects try to hide personality flaws when taking the tests.

83%, .46.Mischel proposed the concept of the "personality coefficient", the upper limit that can be achieved by the correlation between behavior in one situation and behavior in another. Mischel agreed that this correlation is positive and statistically significant, implying that there is some consistency to behavior. But he also asserted that it was relatively low, no bigger than about r = .30, suggesting that behavior was also flexibly responsive to the details of the situation in which it was evoked.

44. Situationism is

a. the idea that a person's behavior is more strongly determined by the situation than by internal traits.*

b. the observation that people are more consistent in their behavior in the same situation than in different situations.

c. the observation the people are no more consistent in their behavior in similar situations than in different situations.

d. the idea that personality consistency between situations is the most valid test of a personality theory.

75%, .25.Traditional approaches to social psychology tended to pose situationist theories against trait theories -- the environment against the person. We now know better, or at least most of us do, but that didn't prevent an awful lot of social psychology, then as now, from asserting that situations were very powerful determinants of behavior -- more powerful than personal determinants such as traits and attitudes.

45. Newborn babies scream for attention whenever they are hungry or wet. In Freudian terms, the behavior of a newborn is governed by

a. the superego.

b. the id.*

c. the ego.

d. sublimation.

82%, .45.Your one Freud question. In classic psychoanalytic theory, the id is the source of primitive sexual and aggressive instincts. It wants its needs satisfied, and it wants them satisfied now. The id is that portion of the mental apparatus that takes account of external reality. The superego is that portion of the mental apparatus that takes account of social reality, such as ethical demands and conscience.

46. In his studies of delay of gratification in children, Mischel found that

a. the length of time that children could delay a desired reward did not depend on whether the reward was visible while the child was waiting.

b. children delayed gratification longer if they spent the time imagining the pleasures they would get from the reward.

c. children delayed gratification longer if they distracted themselves from thinking about the reward.*

d. children's ability to delay gratification was not related to thoughts or behaviors during the delay interval, but was highly correlated with personality characteristics such as introversion and responsibility.

91%, .47.Mischel is a cognitive social learning theorist. He thinks that learning, not genes, is an important source of individual differences in personality -- and especially social learning. And because he focuses on social learning, he also focuses on the effects of situation. However, as a cognitive social learning theorist, he is less concerned with the effects of the objective situation than he is with those of the subjective situation -- how the individual perceives and construes the situation. So even if the reward is physically present, children can delay gratification if they change the way they think about the reward.

47. Which of the following is the correct order in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy?

a. Safety, physiological, esteem, belongingness, self-actualization

b. Physiological, safety, esteem, belongingness, self-actualization

c. Physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization*

d. Belongingness, physiological, safety, esteem, self-actualization

72%, .32.Your one question concerning the "humanistic" approaches to personality. There wasn't much science behind Maslow's theory (though there was some: he worked with Harry Harlow), but Maslow's concepts of self-actualization and the hierarchy of motives has been enormously influential. And contemporary "positive" psychology can be seen as an attempt to put the humanistic psychology advocated by Maslow and Rogers on a firm empirical base.

48. Parents and relatives tend to treat infants according to stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. This behavior illustrates the _____ mode of the person-by-situation interaction.

a. bidirectional

b. evocation*

c. manipulation

d. transformation

73%, .41.I used gender -- how the child's physical appearance, as a boy or a girl -- literally structures the environment in which the child is raised. Yes, it's true that the stereotypes of masculinity and femininity reside in the parents' beliefs about boys and girls. But the action starts with the child, and the child's physical appearance, and the parents are reacting to that. That makes it evocation (in terms of Judith Harris' theory, discussed in the subsequent lectures on Psychological Development, it also makes it a "child-driven" effect.

49. Sometimes college students ask to be placed with a roommate who is different from themselves in terms of race, religion, or social status. This tendency illustrates:

a. reciprocal proximity.

b. ingroup-outgroup prejudice.

c. selection*

d. behavioral manipulation

57%, .33.We usually think of selection in terms of people preferring others who are similar to themselves, but you could just as easily make the opposite choice. In this instance, the students are choosing to place themselves in a more diverse, challenging environment. That's a choice. The choice selects one environment as opposed to another. By making the selection, the person effectively changes the environment by putting himself in one environment as opposed to some other one.

50. You're in the dentist's chair, about to have t root canal. When the assistant notices that you're gripping the arms of the chair, she tells you to stop doing that, and you'll feel more relaxed. This advice illustrates the dialectic between:

a. the person and behavior.*

b. the environment and behavior.

c. the person and the environment.

d. emotion and cognition.

61%, .32. Anxiety is a characteristic of the person. Gripping the chair is a behavior. Stop the behavior, and the anxiety goes away. So, in fact, this is an illustration of the influence of behavior on the person.

A provisional answer key will be posted to the course website by 3:00 PM today.

The exam will be provisionally scored to identify and eliminate bad items.

The exam will then be rescored with bad items keyed correct for all responses.

Grades will be posted to the course website.

A final, revised, answer key, and analyses of the exam items,

will be posted on the course website after grades are posted.

Requests for rescoring must be received within

one (1) week of the posting of grades