This is the location where you will be able to find the full schedule for Education Research Day 2018.
*by clicking on the session time and then specific session numbers (A-G) the box will expand to show additional details
Education Research Day Schedule 2018
Thursday, March 15, 2018
5:00-5:30pm: Registration and Reception at Anthony Hall
5:30-6:30pm: Evening poster session at Anthony Hall
Title: Educators Coaching Educators for Racial Equity: Preliminary Analysis of Midwestern School District Program
Abstract: This poster will represent initial analysis of an Instructional Racial Equity Coaching program in a Midwest public school district. The program was designed to use peer coaching to impact educators’ beliefs and behaviors through supportive and forthright inquiry to interrupt the presence of systemic racism and whiteness in this district’s schools. The poster will address three main areas: program growth, teacher feedback, and coach reflection. I am interested in looking at the ways in which these three levels of analysis support and challenge one another.
The program started as a single-school-based model where over 80% of High School educators voted in favor of the pilot and a $500/educator cut in their Educator Compensation to fund the pilot. In the following years, the model expanded to a district-wide program with an interracial team of approximately a dozen coaches. Every licensed educator was assigned a coach who would conduct classroom observations and conduct peer-coaching sessions. Coaches also shaped and led professional development throughout the school year on race, racism, whiteness, and culturally responsive education. At the time, the student population of this school district was approximately 57% white, 24% black, 11% Hispanic, 5% Asian, and 1.5% American Indian (state-designated categories). Approximately 11% of students were English Language Learners and 36% received free-and-reduced lunch. The majority of educators in the district were white with the largest group being white-females.
Teacher feedback was gathered through two main methods. First the district conducted anonymous surveys. Questions in the survey included opinion scales concerning how beneficial educators found different parts of the program as well as open ended more qualitative questions where educators were asked to share what was most meaningful and how they have learned to racialize their identity. Second, I draw data from a small qualitative study conducted by a peer coach. Coach feedback was gathered through various interviews and reflections.
Lauren Hunter Naples; Heather Walter
Title: Using a Mixed Methods Research Design to Examine Special Education Teacher and Student Wellbeing through the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health
Abstract: The Dual-Factor Model (DFM) has been widely untapped in the field of special education and disability studies. The traditional medical model of health, which primarily recognizes mental health as the absence of psychopathology, has been dominant throughout history (Keyes, 2008). In recent decades, challenges to this model have emerged in a number of fields (i.e., psychology, education) to promote complete mental health through a dual continuum that considers the absence of disease, consistent with the traditional unidimensional model, in addition to the presence of wellbeing.
Teaching is a disproportionately stressful occupation linked to myriad mental health issues (Droogenbroeck & Spruyt, 2015). Teachers are more prone to work-related stress, psychological distress, and burnout compared to professionals in other fields. Even within the field, special education attrition reflects teacher departure at twice the rate of general education (Boe, 2014). Further, high cortisol levels in teachers can transfer to students, demonstrating how consequences of diminished teacher wellbeing adversely impact student experiences and school climate (Oberle & Schonert-Reichel (2016). Empirical evidence views teacher wellness through the traditional unidimensional model; thus, to understand this phenomenon, integrating a holistic DFM framework is critical to address the subjective wellbeing of special educators. This approach will catalyze significant progress in future practice by providing multifaceted insight into the most effective and efficient methods to support professionals, and subsequently, their students.
Accordingly, recent developments by Jennings et al. (2017) examined the Cultivating Awareness and Resilience Program in Education (CARE), which taught mindful based interventions (MBI) to teachers from 36 schools using a randomized wait-list control design. Findings illustrated that the CARE program supported significant stress reduction and improved teachers’ adaptive skills in emotion regulation, expression, and coping strategies in the classroom. Although promising, this program includes a 30-hour professional development component, which does not address the extremely limited data on the efficacy of intentional, ecologically valid interventions for teacher subjective wellbeing. Thus, more generalizable research is needed to clarify our understanding of strategies that promote sustained stress mitigation.
The Socio-Ecological Framework for the Field of Mixed Methods Research (Plano Clark & Ivankova, 2016) will guide our examination of the unique interwoven student-teacher relationships and implications for wellbeing within the context of special education. Utilizing a convergent design (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011), we will collect and analyze quantitative data representing the socio-ecological impacts of teacher and student wellbeing, and merge our findings with analysis of qualitative data pertinent to understanding this phenomenon in the field of special education.
Our findings will provide valuable insight into the utility of a DFM in disability studies and shed light on the complex needs unique to special education (Klingner & Boardman, 2011). Only through innovative mixed-methods research designs (MMR) is it possible to gain a comprehensive view of this largely unexplored, but significantly influential topic. Although MMR is still widely underrepresented in special education (Onwuegbuzie & Corrigan, 2016), it is a necessary means to support the development of ecologically valid educational programs that enhance the wellbeing of diverse populations and promote optimal outcomes.
Title: Explicit Instruction of Reading Comprehension Strategies Using Think Aloud: Effect on Deaf Adolescent Students’ Strategy Use and Comprehension
Abstract: Studies of proficient readers have shown that the use of certain strategies, e.g., relating personal background knowledge to text and summarizing, is important for comprehension of challenging texts (Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 2017; Duke et al., 2011; Goldman et al., 2016; Shanahan, Shanahan, & Misischia, 2011). Despite advances in early identification and intervention and years of literacy research, on average, children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) continue to exhibit long-term language and literacy delays (Kyle & Harris, 2010; Ruffin et al., 2013). Given the consequences of limited literacy across the life span (Garberoglio, Cawthon, & Bond, 2014), it is essential to continue our quest for efficacious instructional approaches. Many adolescent students, hearing and deaf, are limited in their use of comprehension and metacognitive strategies (Banner & Wang, 2011; Donne & Rugg, 2015; Morrison et al., 2013; Nickerson 2003, Schrimer, 2003). Although research has shown explicit instruction can improve students’ use of strategies (Johnson Howell & Luckner, 2003; Palincsar & Brown, 1984), we have few well-designed studies that examine the efficacy of this kind of intervention with adolescents who are DHH (Easterbrooks & Stephenson, 2006; Luckner et al., 2005/2006; Marschark et al., 2009).
To address the scarcity of data, a multiple baseline case study was developed to measure the effect of 1:1 explicit instruction of targeted strategies, using verbal protocol or think aloud, with four DHH high school students. Verbal protocol was used to better understand the students’ cognitive processes as they engaged in reading aloud and to instruct students in the effective use of strategies. Data consisted of pre- vs. post-intervention analyses of: (a) type of strategies used, (b) students’ response accuracy to short answer comprehension questions, (c) coherence and accuracy of self-constructed written summaries, and (d) students’ success in deriving the meaning of unknown words. Student meetings took place over a six-month period of time and consisted of twenty intervention sessions per student. In addition to the student data, interviews with four participating teachers and a total of twenty classroom observations were completed to gain insight into existing literacy instructional practices. All student and teacher sessions were video-recorded for in-depth and accurate analysis.
Preliminary results indicated that although some students used quite a variety of strategies, their application of a strategy did not always lead to correct comprehension of text. The use of a think aloud procedure was highly valuable in shedding light on factors that challenged comprehension. Results also indicated changes in 3/4 students’ strategy use and modest changes in comprehension scores. Findings from this study have potential for contributing to the formulation of more reliable hypotheses about literacy development and identification of efficacious literacy instructional practices for adolescent students. By observing students and teachers, we can better understand how to empower both in implementing effective practices.
Title: Negotiating Language Differences in Second Language Writing
Abstract: How do monolingual and multilingual instructors perceive of the content and form of their multilingual students’ writing? How do multilingual students perceive of the content and form of their writing? This ethnographic qualitative case study is an attempt to gain an understanding of the different perceptions of writing from monolingual and multilingual instructors teaching First-year Composition (FYC) and international multilingual students enrolled in FYC course. This study explores how monolingual and multilingual instructors perceive the content and form of their multilingual students’ writing. Data are collected to gain an in-depth perspective in relation to the uses of rhetorical and stylistic choices and grammar and usage in multilingual writing from semi-structured interviews in which multilingual and monolingual FYC instructors with varied level of teaching and academic experiences from a southwestern university and international students with multiple language backgrounds enrolled in the same institution’s Undergraduate Program will be participating. Analysis of the data will be expected to find if the multilingual writers’ unique language choices can be acknowledged as “resources” rather are viewed as “errors”. The broader focus of this study is expected to reify the pedagogical philosophy for creating a new meaningful learning experience for multilingual writers of English by encouraging them to creatively and meaningfully thrive in their scholarly endeavors.
Framed in line of the philosophical influences of constructionism (Bakhtin, Foucault, Garfinkel) that views knowledge is produced in ongoing conversations and knowledge and identities are constructed in discourses that categorize the world and bring phenomena into sigh , this study tends to map the issues linked to identity, agency, and language ideology and the reflection of these aspects in multilingual writing. Viewed in this sense, Bakhtin’s (1981) dialogical pedagogy complements with social constructionism as that develops a conversation space extending the scope of more engaging and meaningful interaction and dialogue between teachers and students thus leading to a formation of new concepts, new knowledge, and new identities. By illuminating light on the diverse perspectives drawn from the diverse group of participants, this study has made an effort to understand multilingual writers and their writing shifting the focus from use of language larger than the use of mechanics, grammar, vocabularies, and formation of sentence and paragraphs, and rhetorical perfection.
Drawing insights from the perspective of social constructionism and Bakhtinian principles of dialogism, I have specifically intended to understand and identify diverse perspectives on multilingual writer’s uses of English language and whether the “differences” or “conflicting views” in their writing can be viewed more pragmatically through a lens of different social, cultural, and political worldview that redefines the diverse use of language as a tool and reemphasizes on the expression and meaning rather than adhering to the established norms of long-practiced “standard” language ideology that enforces multilinguals to exact their writing to monolingual standard.
Title: System-Justifying Ideologies and Academic Achievement Among Ethnic Minority Youth: A Missing Piece to the Puzzle of the Achievement Gap?
Abstract: The academic achievement gap between majority and minority group members continues to be a major concern for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Despite the best efforts of these stakeholders, very little success in closing the gap has been accomplished to date. The gap in achievement has devastating implications on the individuals that fall behind in the gap, as well as the United States economy. This paper focuses on the racial gap in achievement between majority group students and ethnic minority group students. Moreover, although several ethnic minority groups fall behind in the academic achievement gap, African American and Latinx (a gender inclusive term used to refer to people of Latin American descent) student achievement are the foci of this paper. The history and implications of the achievement gap will be reviewed in the first section of this paper. Next, I will argue that system-justification theory “derived from the field of social psychology” is a useful theory to help explain the academic achievement gap and minority school performance in particular. I will then review and critique two dominant theories that have been frequently used to help explain minority students’ school performance: cultural ecological theory and stereotype threat theory. Additionally, I will explain how system-justification theory makes up for the shortcomings of these two theories. This paper concludes with recommendations for future research.
Title: How Early Career Minority Teachers’ Decisions to Remain Committed to or Exit the Profession are Impacted by Individual Perceptions of Teacher Leadership Experiences
Abstract: Research shows minority teachers positively impact minority student achievement, yet these teachers (especially Blacks and Latino/as) account for the highest percentage of pre-retirement teacher attrition rates. The primary reasons for their premature departures are a lack of autonomy relating to classroom instruction; exclusion from the school-wide decision-making process; and school culture and climate. These concerns could be alleviated through the agency of teacher leadership, especially when taking into account the finding that leadership is second only to classroom instruction when it comes to student achievement. School leaders, therefore, who adopt a distributed leadership model and nurture a culture wherein teachers are empowered to lead reform efforts, could potentially help ameliorate achievement gaps and minority teacher shortages. This proposed study seeks to fill the gap in knowledge on the benefits of early career teacher leadership development for minority teachers and its potential impact on teacher attrition rates.
Leah Rosenbaum; Bjoern Hartmann, UC Berkeley
Title: Evaluating Learning in College Makerspaces: A Literature Review
Abstract: As the Maker movement has grown in general popularity during the last two decades, so it has garnered increased recognition within institutions of higher education. Accordingly, the field of research on undergraduate Making has expanded. This literature review covers research on college-based Makerspaces. While certain areas within this field have been extensively documented, others require more thorough investigation. In particular, data-driven assessments of learning in college Makerspaces are rare, particularly for majors other than engineering, and present opportunities for valuable future research.
Title: Sixth Grade Explorations of Human Impact on Global Temperatures: Leveraging Student Choice to Promote Knowledge Integration
Abstract: We live in a time where Global Climate Change and the human impact on rising global temperatures are frequently the subject of debate. A variety of “scientific data” are used to make claims either about whether or not Earth’s climate is changing and if humans are impacting that process. My goal is to examine how sixth grade students make sense of data and evidence about the human impact on rising global temperatures. I am revising the WISE (Web-based Inquiry Science Environment) unit on Global Climate Change to give students an opportunity to interact with a NetLogo model that demonstrates the energy cycle that warms Earth. Students will also be able to use the model to choose different human activities and explore how those activities impact the energy cycle, and thereby the Earth’s temperature. After piloting the unit, I am hoping to develop questions about how students make sense of what they observe in the models and how they integrate that into their existing understanding of climate change.
Title: Personal Disability Identity in Retinitis Pigmentosa
Abstract: In this study, I examined the reliability and structural validity of scores on the Personal Disability Identity Scale (PDIS; Hahn & Belt, 2004) and correlates of personal disability identity (PDI) in adults with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP; N = 206). Disability identity refers to a positive self-concept as a person with a disability (PDI) as well as feelings of connection to other members of the disability community (group disability identity [GDI]). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a two-factor model of PDI: denial of disability and affirmation of disability. Findings from multiple linear regression indicated that lower disability denial in individuals with RP was associated with higher general self-efficacy. Both disability denial and disability affirmation were associated with visibility of disability (use of cane or guide dog), but not with age at diagnosis. Findings from multiple logistic regression indicated that that individuals with RP whose disability is visible to others (i.e., who use a cane or guide dog) had significantly lower odds of having part or full-time employment.
Mallika Scott; Celeste Gonzalez, UC Berkeley
Title: Forming a Math Crew: A Design Approach to Supporting New Teachers to Navigate the Tensions and Contradictions of Equity-oriented Math Teaching
Abstract: Learning to recognize and build on students’ mathematical strengths is an important component of equity-oriented teacher preparation. However, dominant discourse and practice in schools continue to emphasize finding students’ deficits rather than building on students’ diverse mathematical resources (Jilk, 2016; McDermott & Raley, 2011). Though beginning teachers increasingly participate in some form of induction program, the support offered in these programs tends to be geared toward generic topics like “classroom management” rather than toward the vision teachers developed during their teacher preparation program (Ingersoll & Strong, 2011a; Mehta, Theisen-Homer, Braslow, & Lopatin, 2015). New teachers are thus often left on their own to figure out how to navigate the tensions they experience as they encounter contradictions between their vision for equitable math classrooms and common practices in schools such as strict pacing guides and frequent testing, leading some teachers to either give up on their ambitious agenda or to give up on teaching (DeAngelis, Wall, & Che, 2013). In this designed-based dissertation study, I investigate how to support first year elementary school teachers to navigate the tensions they experience in ways that maintain their commitment to equity-oriented math teaching. I invited six first year teachers from the same preparation program who shared a vision of creating rigorous, strengths-based classroom math communities to join me in forming a teacher learning community, named Math Crew by participants. During the 2016-2017 school year I served as facilitator, co-designer, and researcher in this community. The design of Math Crew was grounded in two structures: monthly learning community meetings and classroom visits from me, as the group facilitator. Participants were actively involved in shaping and reshaping Math Crew to be responsive to the needs of the community. Different routines developed over the course of the year, including sharing generative stories and dilemmas from classrooms, doing math together to support our thinking about what it means for students to learn specific content, choosing focal students and discussing questions about these students, and looking for strengths in student work and discussing how to build on them. I collected video data during monthly community meetings, took ethnographic field notes during periodic classroom visits, and conducted interviews with participating teachers. Preliminary findings indicate that all participants took up and learned toward an ambitious, equity-oriented teaching agenda and drew on multiple resources from Math Crew to support this learning. In addition, I find that Math Crew supported participants to productively navigate the tensions they encountered as they tried to enact a vision that sometimes differed from common practice at their school sites. These findings suggest that first year teachers can do much more than merely “survive” their first year of teaching when they are part of a supportive community working toward a shared vision. This study contributes to our understanding of how to design support for beginning teachers and of when and how teacher learning communities can engage with the tensions they encounter in their work as productive sites for collaborative learning about equity-oriented teaching.
Beatriz Brando, UC Berkeley; Janelle Abela, UC Berkeley; Alexa Cordero, UC Berkeley; John Della Rosa, UC Berkeley; Karissa Lapuz, UC Berkeley; Jennifer Li, UC Berkeley; Edar Liu, UC Berkeley; Kyler McKessy, UC Berkeley; Anne Baranger, UC Berkeley; Angelica Stacy, UC Berkeley
Title: Investigating Student Strategies in Organic Chemistry
Abstract: Organic Chemistry is considered by many to be the quintessential “weeder course.” Widely identified in the premed literature as a gatekeeper to future doctors, there have been many discussions about the negative impact that the course has on student persistence (particularly on underrepresented minority students), and several in the literature have called for either it’s removal from premed requirements or for radical changes in the way that it is taught (Barr et al, 2010). STEM “weeder” courses are a popular area of research when discussing broader STEM persistence and pivotal work like that of Seymour and Hewitt (1994) have found that experiences in STEM prerequisites such as organic chemistry are very influential on students; decisions to remain in STEM fields.
Knowing the huge impact that performance in organic chemistry has on the lives of STEM and pre-med students, it is important to explore the course itself in detail, and determine what aspects of the course and students’ behaviors within it influence student performance. Thankfully there is growing literature on college chemistry education that is beginning to address some of the issues in teaching organic chemistry. While historically focused on classroom interventions, particularly those that emphasize student-centered learning, there is increasingly literature taking a more student-centered approach. Graulich’s (2015) review of organic chemistry education literature found that the field had been explored using the following frameworks: problem solving in organic chemistry, cognitive skills, nature of conceptual knowledge, and to a more limited extent epistemological development. The literature has also looked at how students approach studying the material, with some looking in more detail at the study strategies that students engage in (Sinapuelas & Stacy, 2015).
This work expands from organic chemistry performance literature and explores two key factors in students’ organic chemistry performance: reasoning strategies used in solving organic chemistry problems and student’s study approaches. This presentation will present preliminary results from a mixed methods triangulation study exploring how students study approaches and reasoning strategies and developed and informed within an active learning classroom and how these reasoning strategies and study approaches influence performance on in-class assessments.
Title: Bringing the Storytelling Magic of Face Changing into the Classroom: The Art of Biàn Liǎn
Abstract: With the continuing increase of cultural diversity, effective teachers constantly have to look for new ways to be both culturally responsive and bring cultural diversity to their classroom. On a recent trip to China, I had the opportunity to be introduced to the art of Biàn Liǎn, the art of changing masks in a split second in front of a crowd. Whenever the actor changed masked, his demeanor would change. At one point in the show, he had on a white mask with a big red smiley face and happily went around shaking the audience’s hands and taking pictures. After a few minutes, he instantly changed to a black mask with a frown and acted stuck up, refused to shake anyone’s hand or take any pictures and strutted back to the stage. Watching this performance captured my heart and made me start thinking about how could I incorporate this into my class to introduce my students to the entertaining, dynamic storytelling art of Biàn Liǎn.
This poster presentation will include a brief history of Biàn Liǎn, a section on the difference of symbolism of colors in Chinese culture vs American culture, and four lesson plans, incorporating the storytelling art of Biàn Liǎn. The classroom activities include creating masks for dynamic character development, creating masks for characters the students most connect with, using mask changing to introduce the importance of code-switching, and the elementary level of masks represents feeling and what mood are you in today. Participants may sign up to have the detailed PDF lesson plans emailed to them.
The Dynamic Character Development classroom activity is suggested for grades sixth grade and higher but can be modified for lower grades. This activity can be used when reading novels, short stories, or poetry containing a dynamic character. After reading the first chapter, students should select three characteristics to describe the character and cite evidence as to why the selected characteristics fit the character. As the students read their novels, students should record events, which indicate a change in the character. Before involving colors or masks, students should be introduced to Biàn Liǎn. Afterwards, students will create their own color chart and create Biàn Liǎn masks according to their color chart. In small groups or in front of the class, students should give a presentation showing and explaining each of their masks.
While all four classroom activities help introduce students to the rich Chinese culture of the storytelling art Biàn Liǎn, Biàn Liǎn plays a large role in women equality in China. Up until 1998, only men were allowed performed Biàn Liǎn; however, the Guinness Book of World Records holder for changing 14 masks in 24 seconds, Peng Denghuai, rebelled and accepted eight girls under his apprenticeship. Even though many traditional Chinese artists hold strong beliefs the art of Biàn Liǎn is for men only, women still forge forward and become masters of Biàn Liǎn.
Title: Theoretical Framework for Coping: Supporting Black Families With a Child With a Developmental Disability
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to examine whether contemporary models of stress and coping adequately encompass the experience of Black parents coping with a child with a developmental disability. I begin by examining two theoretical frameworks that characterize stress and coping processes of parents with a child a child with a developmental disability. The literature considered in this paper includes Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) transactional model of stress and coping and McCubbin and Patterson’s (1982) double ABCX model. In the second section of the paper I review the empirical literature, much of which is guided by an integration of these theoretical frameworks. My review identified many studies focusing extensively on the ways that parents cope with the demands of raising a child with a developmental disability (Glidden et al., 2009; Selzter & Heller, 1997). In addition to this focus on the coping process, many studies have explored the appraisal process by which parents assess an event in terms of a threat, challenge, and controllability. Furthermore, many of these studies have found that parents’ psychological well-being is higher when they engage in active coping (i.e., planning and positive reinterpretation; Kim, Greenberg, Seltzer, & Krauss, 2003) and appraisal strategies such as taking stock of what resources are available to them (Haslam, O’Brien, Jetten, Vormedal, & Penna, 2005). My review concludes by focusing on several key limitations of this literature, most notably that the theoretical conceptualizations do not adequately consider how the sociocultural context shapes parents’ appraisal and coping. Additionally, few studies have included racially diverse participants. As a result, there is limited information on the coping process used by Black families with a child with a developmental disability (Harry, 2002). This disparity in research reveals a need for further investigation into the contextual factors that shape how Black families cope with their child’s developmental disability.
Keywords: coping, parents, children with disabilities, developmental disability, parental well-being, appraisal process, Black parents, family coping
Nicole DelMastro- Jeffery
Title: Untold narratives: Students of color experiences at Geis College of Business explored.
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore personal experiences of students of color at the Geis College of Business through artistic story telling. By way of artistic narrative expression and colorful artwork, this research aims to empower and liberate students of color by celebrating their personal journeys to and through higher education at a predominantly white institution. This research is grounded in critical race theory.
Ana Guerrero; Dr. Richard Duran, UC Santa Barbara
Title: Immigrant Latinx High School Students’ Perceptions of Academic Performance and College and Career Readiness
Abstract: Objectives: Who and what impact immigrant Latinx public high school juniors’ aspirations as they journey towards college and beyond? Past research points to the importance of both school and non-school factors and their combined effects and interactions (Cooper, 2011). As part of a larger study, this paper focuses on students’ school world to explore their emergent career and post-high school aspirations and how well these aspirations synchronized with their current academic pursuits and performance and their awareness of college and career information provided at school. Theoretical Framework Previous research from a Bridging Multiple Worlds perspective (Durán & Chaidez-Ubaldo, 2016) mapped a recursive social process through which maturing underrepresented youth pursued and adjusted their post-high school and career aspirations, which became concrete expectations tied to attainable goals in their everyday life experiences. We extended this research to examine 11th grade students’ perceptions of connections between their school-based activities and readiness for college and careers.
Methods: Informants included 12 high school juniors (six males, six females) in a California Central Coast high school participating in a college preparation program. Students were either 1.5 or second-generation Latinx immigrants. Data sources included two semi-structured face-to-face ethnographic interviews utilizing BMW elicitation prompts and students’ academic and standardized test records. Interview data were thematically coded and compared across informants to address students’ perceptions of their academic pursuits and awareness of college and career readiness.
Results: Although six students were considering graduate degrees, seven (including these six) expressed unclear understanding of how to accomplish their educational aspirations and link them to career readiness. Seven expressed discomfort in advanced courses, which they attributed to being Latinx and not being viewed by others as academically qualified. Students also felt low levels of confidence in their academic abilities, despite having taken advanced college preparatory courses; for most, their greatest fear was academic failure in the present and future. Although students reported not feeling understood or connected as significant classroom experiences, they also felt empowered for themselves and their “people” by taking advanced courses. Nine students reported needing their school to provide college major and career information and related academic preparation and guidance. As children of immigrants or immigrants themselves, students felt pressured to be college-ready, yet needed further career guidance, suggesting they did not understand the implications and potential connections of their day-to-day success in school for attaining their long-term aspirations.
6:30-8:30pm: Reception at Anthony Hall
Friday, March 16, 2018
8:30-9:00am: Registration on second floor Tolman Hall outside the Ed/Psych Library and light breakfast (fruit, pastries, coffee and tea served)
9:00-9:15am: Welcoming Remarks in the Ed/Psych Library
9:15-10:30am: Introductions and Panel 1 in the Ed/Psych Library featuring Dr. David Pearson and Dr. Ting Siu, “Research, Curriculum & Accessibility,” moderated by Dean Prudence Carter.
10:30-10:45am: Passing Period
10:45-12:00 (noon): Session 1
1A: Room 1635
Moderator: Dr. Derek Van Rheenen
Nigel Haikins- Appiah
Title: Diversity in Athletic Administration
Abstract: College athletic departments have become prominent facets of many universities across the country. Often a chief source of student diversity for many prestigious institutions, the leadership and staff of these departments rarely reflect the racial makeup of its constituency. This panel will consist of student-athletes that have attended UT Austin’s “Black Student-Athlete Summit,” and will serve as a forum for them to voice their thoughts on the need for diversity within athletic administration.
Title: Asian American Women Diversity Officers Navigating Coloniality in Higher Education
Abstract: The purpose of this comparative case study is to examine the racialized experiences of Asian American Chief Diversity Officers (CDOs) in higher education across the United States. Through better understanding of the lived experiences of Asian American CDOs, I seek to identify the strategies and techniques this community adopts to navigate the binary racial environment of higher education and its manifestations within the CDO profession itself. I also look at how the experiences of Asian American CDOs can contribute to the evolution of diversity, equity, and inclusion work in higher education.
Title: The Enduring Financial “Crisis” of Urban School Districts: The Politics of Oakland’s Portfolio Strategy
1B: Room 2320
Moderator: Dr. Dan Perlstein
Nicolas Saldivar; Morgan Bessette, UC Berkeley
Title: Cultural Ecology Theory and Intergenerational differences in Academic Achievement
Abstract: Cultural ecological theory, although criticized by some academics, provides a framework that acknowledges community, cultural, and institutional influences on psychosocial and academic beliefs and behaviors. As it stands there is minimal literature produced that has applied the cultural ecological theory as a framework for analyzing academic achievement among Latinx populations. The present paper seeks to review the current literature on academic development among Latinx populations utilizing the cultural ecological theory as a framework of analysis. I will also offer critiques regarding the limitations of cultural ecological theory in efforts to inform more nuanced analyses for future research related to the academic achievement among marginalized populations.
Title: Critical Youth Theorists on Prison Writing Programs and Abolitionist Futures
Abstract: This project is motivated by the need to imagine a new social time/space, or a different one, at least, from our pasts and presents. Extending the work of researchers who offer theories of resistance and social transformation (Collins, 1998; hooks, 1994; Solórzano and Delgado Bernal, 2001; Stovall, 2016; Tuck & Yang, 2011), I am interested in what young people who are experiencing incarceration or detention think/believe/imagine about social futures, possibilities, and transformation. I want to know what possibilities their writing opens for our understanding of what abolitionist futures (Meiners, 2011) might look like.
Schools often function as the space for minoritized youth to be(come) criminalized and criminalizable (Rios, 2011; Sojoyner, 2016; Winn, 2013). We know that Black and Brown students suffer disproportionate punishment in K-12 school settings and that suspended/expelled students are more likely to experience incarceration (Alexander, 2010; Dillon, 2012; Winn & Behizadeh, 2011; Wun, 2015). Critical educational theorists exploring issues of race, schooling, and society have noted these phenomena for years. Nasir and Hand (2006) write that “critical theorists … argue that minority school failure is not at all a surprising phenomenon, nor is it one that can be addressed without significant change in societal and school organization” (p. 453). How we might imagine the significant change in societal organization is exactly what this research project aims to discover, and, therefore, asks the following questions:
Research Questions What and whose goals do prison writing programs serve?
How do young people experiencing incarceration/detention understand
their participation in a prison writing program?
How do prison writing programs maintain ideologies of incarceration?
How do prison writing programs sustain individual and communal
resistance to ideologies of incarceration?
Following Weis and Fine (2012), I am proposing a research design which employs the theoretical principle of critical bifocality. Weis and Fine describe critical bifocality as the “dedicated theoretical and empirical attention to structures and lives” in research design and practice (2012, p. 174). They write that educational research must attend to the contextualized effects of social structures on the meaning-making activities of individuals and communities. Research within a critical bifocality framework recognizes that macro-level systems and structures limit and inform individual thought and action, response and resistance. The key to critical bifocality is “linking ethnographic data to relevant facets of overall structural context” so that research does not ignore the effects of the social, cultural, historic, and economic pressures on individual and communal meaning-making activity (p. 185). Only when research examines both structures and lives does it attend to the (re)production of power and privilege along with individual and communal resistance to the oppression which so much power and privilege manifest. In this sense, any research with young people experiencing incarceration/detention must include research on the structures of youth incarceration, including the surveillance and criminalization of youth at schools and on their ways to schools, as well as the very social construction of “youth” itself.
Title: Charter Management Organizations and Charter School Autonomy: An Inevitable Conflict
Abstract: This case study investigates the impact of private bureaucracy on the shape of charter school education. I examine the relationships between past and present school directors of each school and the board of directors that employ them in an emerging, three-school CMO. The study employs the lens of existing organizational theory literature on the relationship between nonprofit executives and their boards of directors to challenge the primary neoliberal justification for charter schools as market-based institutions: that privately-run charter schools are not necessarily more autonomous than traditional public schools (TPS). Findings indicate that in this charter organization, a private bureaucracy stood in direct opposition to school autonomy. The divergent goals of the individual charter school and their parent CMO were a continuous source of serious tension that led to rapid turnover of school leaders, a major contributing factor to poor school performance.
Title: Regulatory Environments of Choice Systems and Policy Formation: A Critical Policy Analysis
Abstract: Since 1991, charters have increasingly been employed as one of many reform initiatives available to policymakers seeking to increase the quality of education and improve educational outcomes. Charter schools have been a a part of a broader movement towards market oriented reforms that emerged in response to the standards and accountability movement. Market oriented reforms consist of school improvement initiatives that are under girded by market principles, which suggests that competition, choice, decentralization, and deregulation will result in improved academic outcomes. However, as policy makers on the local, state, and federal level enact policies that expand charters, there has not been adequate attention to the design, development, and implementation of choice systems (Baker et al. 2016). As a systems changing policy tool, charter schools have fundamentally transformed the cartography of the school districts that they are embedded within, raising a number of questions about how charters ought to work in relationship to traditional public schools, authorizers, and district, state and federal governments. As public policies regulate the implementation of charter schools, including concerns related to equity, the regulatory environment of charter schools dictate the boundaries surrounding how the autonomy and flexibility afforded to charters is leveraged. This paper examines how deregulation, autonomy, and flexibility are leveraged in a high performing, high poverty charter management organizations who subscribe to a No Excuses philosophy. As discipline practices are a part of the school features that charters have the autonomy to determine, the processes that inform the development of their practices within this particular subset of charter schools will be examined. By using an equity lens, this paper provide a critical policy analysis of the relationship between the regulatory environments of charter schools, the formation of school level discipline practices, and the development of (in) equitable processes within schools.
1C: Room 2515
Moderator: Dr. Frank Worrell
Title: Examining Values Affirmation Effects in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schools
Abstract: Introduction: Social-psychological interventions have garnered recent attention due to impressive changes in student performance and well-being (Yeager & Walton, 2013). Among them, values affirmation interventions are theorized to buttress self-worth, reduce stereotype threat effects, and lower stress (Sherman, 2013). The brief and inexpensive intervention involves a short writing task (<10 minutes) where students select values and explain their importance and connection to their lives (Cohen et al., 2006). The intervention has shown to produce positive effects in social-psychological variables and achievement for low-achieving and negatively-stereotyped students (Brady et al., 2016; Sherman, 2013). Although they aren’t magic the intervention ameliorated a portion of the achievement gap between racial/ethnic groups in the many studies (Cohen et al., 2006, 2009; Yeager & Walton, 2013).
However, previous values affirmation studies have situated the achievement gap as a within-school issue rather than a between-school phenomenon; ignoring poverty, segregation and school context as a critical factor influencing student achievement and well-being. (Frankerberg, Lee, Orfield, 2003; Hanushek, Kain, Riviken, 2009; Sirin, 2005). Racial and economic segregation continues to be a pervasive element of the United States school system, and students of color in urban contexts are absent from much of the values affirmation literature (Bratter, Rowley, & Chukhray, 2017). Only one other study to date has examined the effects of the intervention in urban schools where students of color are the numeric majority (Bratter et al., 2017). Nearly all studies have been conducted in White-majority student populations, and have excluded students with disabilities (Cohen et al., 2006, 2009; Hanselman et al., 2016). Similarly, only one study to date has included students with disabilities as a focus of the intervention, but it was not conducted in a public urban school context (Silverman & Cohen, 2004). Critics of social-psychological interventions argue there are inconsistent psychosocial mediators found within the body of research (Schwartz, Cheng, Salehi, & Wieman, 2016). In addition, the majority of students do not benefit from the intervention, effects are seen only for the negatively stereotyped and low-achieving students (Schwartz et al., 2016).
The achievement gap continues to be a complex and persistent issue within the United States education system, and social-psychological interventions may play a role in eliminating a portion of the gap in schools. To implement at scale, future research must examine: (a) the impact of school contexts with students of color as the majority, (b) the psychosocial mediators or principles to identify intervention effects, and (c) special populations including students with disabilities.
Methods: The current study is a work-in-progress. Students were given a fall survey with psychosocial mediators of grit, growth mindset, hope, resilience, institutional trust, belonging, and ethnic identity. After the fall survey, students were randomly assigned the values affirmation intervention or control writing task, both students and teachers were blind to their condition. Student demographic information, grades, standardized test scores, and an identical spring survey will be gathered to examine differences between intervention and control groups.
Results and Discussion: (Pending study completion)
Title: Early Indicators Related to Risk of Identification of a Learning Disability
Abstract: Approximately 5% of students are identified with learning disabilities (LD). There are several methods used to identify students with LD, and LD is often comorbid with other disorders, especially Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Consequently, students with LD are an extremely heterogeneous group. Using a nationally representative sample of children in elementary school, this study seeks to create profiles kindergarteners who go on to develop LD by how they perform on measures cognition and behavior. Based on these findings, this study will propose subtypes of students with LD based on how they perform on the most salient measures of cognition and behavior. Results from this study will have implications for early interventions for students at-risk of LD.
Title: Using Qualitative Data to Help Student Track Their Progress
Abstract: This presentation will detail my exploration to find a trustworthy and reliable method to capture students’ true progress through collecting qualitative data. A breakdown of the grounded theory research design, data collection, and primary analysis of the data will be given, in addition to a brief What’s next? brainstorming session with participants.
My school district uses the Marzano learning scale to quantify and categorize students’ knowledge and to track their progress on a 0-4 scale. Zero means the student has no idea about the skill. One represents the student knowing a little bit but needs help to complete the skill or activity. If the student is a two, they can almost do the skill on their own but still require some assistance. Three is the level of mastery; students can do the skill all by themselves. At a four, students are completing work on their own above and beyond the skill. The goal of using a Marzano scale is to show students their growth between the beginning and end of class.
As I used Marzano learning scales in my classroom, even with the explanation of what each level meant, I noticed the majority of my students were not engaging in a reflective process to choose their level of understanding. At the beginning of class, most students would just pick a number. I worked with my students on growth mindset, integrity, being honest with oneself, taking ownership of their education, metacognition, and other social-emotional skills in hopes of making the number of the learning scales mean something to them. Getting my students to connect to the numbers, so the district could have valid data on the growth of the students, failed miserably.
As I began to reflect on the situation, the notion of quantifying student progress seemed to simplify the student’s learning too much. Reflecting and researching to find a solution to the problem, I adopted social constructivism as part of my theoretical framework because I believe each one of my students is different, thereby, creating the subjective meaning of their individual learning experiences.
To collect data, I created Student Progress Sheets with three columns. The first column included the date and the “I can” statements to be learned. The second column was narrow and left blank for students to place an emoji, which represented how they felt they related to the “I can” statement. The third column was also left blank for students to write evidence as to why they gave themselves the self-chosen emoji. The last page of the Student Progress Sheets contained an open-ended question, “Write 5-7 sentences of feedback about the Student Progress Sheet: (1) What did you like about it, (2) What would you improve?, and (3) Would you want to use them again?” The sheets contained a total of 35 “I can” statements broken down by days for the entire week and were completed by the students on a daily basis. Students completed the final open-ended question on Friday.
1D: Room 3635
Berkeley Review of Education (BRE) Workshop
Title: Demystifying the Publications Process: Submitting Manuscripts and Engaging in Peer Reviews
Abstract: While publications are a critical component of the academic portfolio, writing for publication and the publication process itself are not often made explicit to graduate students. As a result, stepping into the world of journals can be overwhelming. This session offers insights and advice in writing specifically for journals. Sponsored by the Berkeley Review of Education (BRE), an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal run by graduate students at UC Berkeley, this session will focus on how to select journals, an overview of the publication process, and an overview of the peer review process (including how to interpret feedback), with ample time for extended discussion in which participants can share their knowledge and experiences about publishing in academia.
1E: Room 3515
Moderator: Dr. Erin Murphy-Graham
Title: Stratification through educational ideology: How charter schools’ organizational identities reflect race and class
Abstract: Are charter schools heterogeneous and embedded in local ethnic- and class-specific niches, as class stratification scholars assert? Or are they isomorphic, ritually circumscribed, and disconnected from local conditions, as organizational institutionalists argue? My project adjudicates this debate by examining ideological differentiation among charter schools’ and in particular its performance effects and political/social contingencies. In a two-stage research design, I first analyze charters’ publicly visible identities through cutting-edge text analysis (deductive dictionary methods with a validity check using inductive topic models) of all mission statements (MSs) for all charter schools operating in the 2014-15 school year. I then estimate fixed-effects regression models that test the impact of charter missions on educational outcomes. I thereby transcend persistent methodological problems in the study of charter-school identities (due to inconsistent hand-coding of data limited by geography, history, and validity) by collecting contemporary, valid, and population-wide data, as well as by blending induction (through text analysis of identities) and deduction (through statistical testing of hypotheses).
Title: Asian & Black Women in STEM Bachelor’s Degree Programs: A Qualitative Analysis of their Academic Persistence & Overall Success
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic experiences of both Asian and Black women currently enrolled in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree programs. This comparative study draws from 20 ethnographic interviews from successful Asian and Black women who are currently enrolled in STEM bachelor’s degree programs in order to better understand the factors that facilitate their academic success as well as to understand the factors that hinder their academic success. Furthermore, my findings highlight several support strategies that shape student participation and degree completion for Asian and Black women enrolled in STEM majors: peer support, faculty mentorship, enrollment in on-campus tutorial services for STEM courses, self-motivation, and the integration of spirituality to help them cope with the rigors of college. In addition, it was found that several factors hinder Black and Asian women’s academic success in STEM programs, which includes: the lack of pre-college academic preparation needed to succeed in college-level STEM courses, poor study skills, feelings of isolation and alienation, concerns about paying for college, and a chilly campus climate. This qualitative study also includes a focus on implications, which offers insight into retaining more women of color in STEM degree programs altogether.
Title: Overlooked in Academia: The Voices of Parenting Students in Postsecondary Education
Abstract: There have been some college success amongst parenting students in higher education. My personal story of completing three degrees as a parent and first-generation student play to that achievement. Furthermore, I am not alone. A variety of my peers, amongst others, have completed undergraduate and graduate degrees while raising their children. Although we contribute to the mass successes of diverse ethnic first-generation students, our narratives of our day-to-day experiences and accomplishments are overlooked and underreported in the first-generation scholarship.
Continuing to frame and refer to us as nontraditional is minimizing to our existence in higher education and our contributions to those completing degrees. Often, when researchers talk about first-generation students and parents in academia, they are discussed as two different student groups or looped together as one (Dumais & Ward, 2009; Mehta, Newbold, & O’Rourke, 2011; Nelson, Froehner, & Gault, 2013). Not acknowledging and inquiring on student differences beyond the first-generation label leads to assumptions that we all endure in the same outcomes and complete college degrees in the same exact way.
My research pays close attention to the undergraduate experiences of three first-generation college (FGC) parenting students currently enrolled in doctoral programs at a predominately white institution in the Midwest. The purpose of my research is to understand how first-generation parent students complete their bachelor’s degrees. The theoretical framework for this study is Pierre Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory. When it comes to cultural practices and experiences amongst different social class groups in higher education, Bourdieu’s theory has been one of the most utilized and controversial theories often used in educational research on issues of equity (Stuber, 2001; Yosso, 2005). The following research questions guide this study’s inquiry:
1. How do the socioeconomic status and family educational background of first-generation college parent students affect how they attain higher education opportunities and become successful in completing their undergraduate degrees?
2. What are the academic and personal experiences of undergraduate parent students and what strategies do they utilize to complete their bachelor’s degrees?
This master thesis study is IRB approved and uses a qualitative approach to conduct face-to-face semi-structured interviews over a two-month period. Findings will show how identifying as mothers, first-generation, head of household, and undocumented person affected how they navigated entrance into their four-year institutions and completed their college degrees. My thesis stresses the importance of becoming more critically conscious of the complexity of identity, culture, and the demographic makeup of the first-generation population. There is a necessity to unpack the first-generation demographic and understand how internal as well as external factors contribute to the completion of degrees.
Although, there has been promising research on FGC students and a mass of studies directed towards educational inequality, issues of equity continue to exist, especially for those from minoritized groups. The goal of my presentation is to highlight the experiences and successes of parents in my study and to provide an opportunity to discuss issues faced by parents and first-generation students in postsecondary education.
Title: Master-BAE-te: Exploring the case for promoting Black female pleasure in schools
Abstract: Freud’s pleasure principle (1911) cited pleasure as the genesis of human action. Ironically, school based sex education has long worked to remove any mention of pleasure when instructing students about this most personal and intimate of acts. Coupled with societal pathologizing of Black female sexuality, black girl’s ability to consciously center their own pleasure and by extension bodily integrity and sexual agency has been undermined. Re-envisioning these classrooms as as safe spaces to self-explore concurrently fosters adoption of consent culture. Sexual exploration normalizes self-determination. When empowered to envision and enact only that which is pleasurable is not a practice with utility limited to the bedroom. Schools are engaged with almost universally; their curricula should be universally applicable.
1F: Room 4635
Moderator: Dr. Gary Yabrove
Title: Exploring the Experiences of International Teachers in a Bilingual Immersion Environment
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to illuminate the voices of homeroom Chinese teachers and explore the cultural influences these teachers share. I intend to record their perspectives through a series of focus group meetings, personal interviews, and classroom observations in addition to observations of community teacher education meetings. I intend to study and record their journey through tracing the process of their experiences, the integration of their culture, and their experiences with U.S. culture. I hope to illuminate how a progressive Mandarin immersion school can effectively and collectively work together to elevate the voices of international teachers who come to the United States in hopes to achieve the new American dream.
Dr. Felicia Darling
Title: Making Cultural Assets Count: Funds of Math Knowledge in a Yucatec Maya community and middle school
Abstract: In this study, a Yucatec Maya carpenter remodels a kitchen using no tape measure, yet armed with specialized knowledge of the 3-4-5 right triangle, a length of string, and a makeshift level crafted from plastic pipe and water. Despite this engineering expertise, he does not consider his mathematical knowledge to be legitimate, because it is not a product of formal schooling. This carpenter lives in a typical village in the Yucatán in that it has low national math scores and high drop out and poverty rates. His story illustrates the tension between formal and informal schooling existing in rural, high-poverty communities in many countries.
This six-month ethnographic, mixed-methods study explored problem-solving approaches in one Yucatec Maya community in México, and how these cultural assets could be used to inform instruction in a local middle school. While national math scores are historically low in Yucatec Maya villages in México, this study illuminates evidence of a wealth of community math knowledge and a wide variety of innovative approaches to solving everyday problems. In addition, it piloted two inquiry-based math tasks in a local middle school based on real-life, everyday problems in the village. This study supports the idea that students who say, “I am not good in math.” or those who have historically underperformed on standardized tests may actually be competent math learners and mathematicians. Furthermore, they possess innovative approaches to problem solving that may inform how we teach math, engineering, and maker space skills to all students.
The conceptual framework of this study draws from the habitus gap research of Bourdieu and the ethnographic and anthropologic work of researchers including Saxe (1998), Rogoff, etal (2003), and Lareau (2003). The primary data consisted of surveys, interviews, classroom videos, and field notes from participant observations. Qualitative analytic coding was used as described by Emerson, Fretz and Shaw (2011). It is distinguished from grounded theory in that grounded theory implies that data is pure and therefore theory is discovered (Glaser & Strauss, 1968). Emerson, et al argue that data is already influenced by initial conceptual and analytic commitments inherent in the decision-making process of the researcher in the early stages of the study. “The field worker renders the data meaningful and creates, rather than discovers theory” (2011, p. 168). Cultural insiders informed data collection, analysis, and presentation of study results.
Title: Transition to Old Age: How Do Sexual Behaviors and Personality Contribute to Successful Aging?
Abstract: The rate of individuals transitioning to old age (i.e. 65 and older) is expected to exponentially increase in the coming years (United Nations Development Division, 2015), and as such society’s need for research promoting successful aging to meet the demand for this growing population is accelerating. The transitionary period into old age holds significant and diverse challenges and losses that interact across life domains, and can make old age seem depressing and lead to a decline in well-being (Stevernick, 2014). Although older adults have many challenges that are associated with old age, many continue to live in a positive and adaptive way (Jeste & Oswald, 2014). This had led to research shifting from their previous framework that was rooted in models of decline and loss to models that emphasize positive change and development (Kahlbaugh & Huffman, 2017). Successful aging is one such model, which refers to relatively high levels of cognitive, physical, and social functioning, and distancing from disease and disability (Baltes, & Baltes, 1993; Rowe & Kahn, 1997; Baltes, & Smith, 2003; Stevernik, 2014). The purpose of the current study was to investigate how to further promote successful aging. Specifically, the researcher examined whether higher levels of sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction as well as personality predicted higher overall psychological well-being in the transition to old age. Health status and gender were also assessed to see whether they moderated the effect of sexual frequency, sexual satisfaction, or personality on overall psychological well-being. The study employed previously collected data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), a large sample of Wisconsin high school graduates who provided longitudinal data on diverse information across an extensive period of time (Herd et al., 2014). The data used was collected from the 1993 and 2011 waves when participants were an average of 53 and 71 years old. Variables were created from self-report survey items from Ryffâ€™s Psychological Well-Being Scales (Ryff & Keyes, 1995), the Big Five Inventory, version 54 (BFI-54) (John, 1990; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991), self-report data on sexual behaviors, and demographic information. Two-way mixed effects ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that sexual frequency, sexual satisfaction, and personality all predicted change in overall psychological well-being. Health and gender did not moderate the relationship between sexual behaviors and psychological well-being, however the relationship between personality and psychological well-being was partially moderated by health and gender. Results have implications across professional domains in the care, treatment, and support of the older adult population.
Title: [Re]sounding Sanctuary: Abolitionary Schooling Within the Carceral Racial Liberal State
Abstract: As waves of violence and threat spike in the White nationalist, anti-Semitic, misogynistic, xenophobic, and Islamaphobic battering and barring of lives in the US, cities and schools across the nation have also responded by establishing themselves as sanctuaries. Witness to increasingly conspicuous Alt-Right displays of hatred, sanctuaries are taking root as public sites in which US transportation systems, school principals, and other civic workers challenge policies legislating and authorities enforcing emboldened measures of social cruelty and chaos.
Declaring themselves as in defiance of trenchant hatred disguised as lawful security crackdowns of unlawful undesirables (for their presumed criminal and corruptive potential), sanctuaries reprise a hxstory of a movement mobilizing protests, filing lawsuits, organizing immigrant communities against deportation, and engendering disobedience through religious congregations, restaurants, educational institutions, and local jurisdictions. As schools and communities step forward to carry out the pledge of protecting their students, school and community members must be watchful of justificatory grounds ultimately reinforcing a carceral racial liberal state tied to positivist multiculturalism or democratic pluralism. Instead, a different acoustics is called for in educator professional development, teacher training programs, and a broader US public in order to sustain the sound of abolition in sanctuary.
1G: Room 5509
Moderator: Dr. Tony Mirabelli
Anthony Carrasco; Janelle Scott, UC Berkeley
Title: A Home in the Academic Margins: Racial Microagressions among Homeless Students of Color
Abstract: The pathway Students of Color take through their experience of homelessness is embedded in often ongoing negative educational experiences. Some of these experiences are tied to multiple intersectional problems which include verbal and non-verbal layered assaults based on the student’s race, gender, class, sexuality, language, immigration status, phenotype, accent, or surname, often carried out in subtle, automatic or unconscious forms also known as racial microagressions. Using a Critical Race Theory (CRT) framework and qualitative data, this study was designed to explore the racialized experiences of Homeless Students of Color. This phenomenological study draws on 11 semi-structured in-depth interviews with Black and Latina/o homeless students between the ages of 12 and 18 living in the urban southwest. Coded for emergent themes, I organize the study’s findings into two sections: (1) everyday hostile encounters and (2) intersectionality of race, class, and other identities. Results begin to show how race can animate the lives of Homeless Youth of Color in ways distinct from white homeless students, and other Students of Color, even those of low socioeconomic status and in turn can generate unique forms of academic disempowerment. Policy recommendations include the implementation of anti-racist educational programs such as affirmative action.
Title: Praxis of Supremacy: White Women Reflections on their Education and Efforts to Destabilize Racism Within Four-Year Colleges
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to utilize a whiteness lens to understand how white women identified college students are engaging in anti-racism action and what they believe to be their responsibilities in ending racism throughout their college experience and beyond. In addition, the study will evaluate the perceptions of white women identified staff of their fight against white supremacy on their college campuses and the examples they provide as they inspire their students to learn and push back on racialized campus structures.
Title: Interactive reading and the negotiation of agency: Pre-schoolers reading fiction of the iPad
Abstract: I am a final year PhD student, currently a visiting student researcher at UC Berkeley. In this presentation, I will report some of the findings from my doctoral research.
There is strong evidence that shared reading in the early years (Heath, 1983; Meek, 1982) and reading for pleasure (Cremin et al., 2014) impact children’s later reading habits and school achievement. New digital textual forms, nonetheless, are presenting new, different opportunities for reading even for the very young, but we know little about the main features of this type of reading. In this project, I investigate children’s meaning-making when reading literary apps on a tablet in joint-reading situations with a parent in a public library in the UK. Literary apps for children are semiotic artefacts that tell a fictional story through a multimodal, multimedia and interactive text. They are often considered digital manifestations of the picturebook (Al-Yaqout & Nikolajeva, 2015). Yet, many literary apps transcend the traditional reading experience in many ways due to its creative uses of the affordances of tablet computers and digital media, allowing readers to participate in the story not only through touch interactivity but also through other embodied forms of interaction.
Case studies were conducted with six 4-year-olds reading different literary apps. In video-recorded observations, the children read literary apps with their parent(s) as co-reader(s). Next, they were elicited to create a visual response to the narrative and to retell the story using finger puppets. A micro multimodal analysis was conducted both with regards to the semiotic artefacts (the apps) and the children’s responses, as reader and text are considered equally fundamental to meaning-making from a social semiotic perspective (Kress, 2010).
While readers are always agents in the process of reading (Kress, 2010), reading fiction also involves a level of surrender to the text to achieve narrative immersion (Ryan, 2015). I will, therefore, discuss some of the findings from this project related to the negotiation of agency between these young readers and an interactive narrative. The analysis of the reader’s embodied responses revealed three broad stances of the reader-text dynamic negotiation of meaning: (1) children complied with the meanings suggested by the text; (2) children agreed with the text to some extent, however, altered some aspects of the meanings suggested to suit their need or ability; (3) the readers show understanding of the meanings suggested by the text but purposefully subverted them.
Title: Redesigning Remediation for Equity
Abstract: Approved in October of 2017, California Assembly Bill 705 requires community colleges to maximize the probability that students complete college-equivalent coursework in English and mathematics within their first year of entry. In an effort to meet this mandate, community colleges have begun experimenting with acceleration strategies. However, a lack of definitive research on the effects of acceleration has contributed to structural variations, including the implementation of stretch and corequisite courses.
This paper reviews the extant literature on remediation and acceleration and identifies areas for future research. Although studies have shown positive effects from acceleration, there is minimal qualitative data on the experience of educators and students engaging with these programs. Additionally, a lack of research conceals whether demonstrated positive effects are equitable for all students. Further research is necessary to determine which acceleration programs achieve positive and equitable results.
12:00(noon)-12:30pm: Lunch is served in the Ed/Psych Library
12:30-1:45pm: Panel 2 in Ed/Psych Library featuring Tia Madkins and Herb Kohl, “Lessons for Teaching in Changing Times”
2:00-3:15pm: Session 2
2A: Room 1635
Moderator: Dr. Mark Wilson
Alessandra Silveira; Zach Pardos, UC Berkeley
Title: Understanding Online Learner Motivations with Construct Modeling
Abstract: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) hosted by elite institutions of higher education have attracted millions of users around the globe to new digital learning environments. This phenomena has led to one of the major sources of big data in education, providing an in depth look at user behavior, attitudes and learning. These courses are free and are taken at users own volition, often to augment their academic and/or career skills or to continue a path of lifelong learning. As these courses are not mandatory, retention rates in MOOCs are one of great concern as only 12% of those who initially enroll in MOOCs go on to finish the course. There has been a recent interest in understanding the motivations of the users who enroll in these online courses as well as how it affects their overall performance and completion of the course. In this paper we will look at two sources of data from two different courses, both hosted by Stanford Online Lagunita program, to understand the relationship between motivation and behavior in a MOOC. The first source of data comes from pre-course survey responses where students declare basic demographic information as well as their learning goals and enrollment intentions, which will be used to analyze their motivations through Construct Modelling and Item Response Theory. The second source of data comes from the the event logs of the clickstream data of those respondents in the online learning environment, which we will use to visualize their navigational behavior in the course, as well as in relation to their survey responses to determine whether students with similar motivations have similar behavior. Ultimately we hope to have a greater understanding of learner motivations and the relationship it may have in the successful completion of a MOOC.
Title: Peer Assessment
Abstract: Due to the shift in education from teacher-centered to student centered, types of assessment which requires active participation of students gained much attention by researchers and one of these is peer assessment. There is an abundance of research looking at the use and efficiency of the peer assessment and most of the researchers agreed that peer assessment improves students` academic achievement. However, there are a lot of factors effecting the efficiency of the peer assessment and the researchers conducted studies over years testing these factors. The literature review in this research proposal discusses these factors and their influence on the efficiency of the peer assessment. It also mentions about conflicting findings and gaps in the previous literature. In the previous studies, the researchers disagreed if the benefits of the peer assessment stems from providing feedback or receiving feedback. Also, there is not a clear evidence about if receiving feedback from multiple peer is more favorable than receiving feedback from single peers. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of providing feedback and the effects of receiving feedback on the students` academic improvement. This study also aims to compare impacts of single peer feedback and multiple peer feedback on students` academic improvement. The proposed study will help to clarify the conflicting findings and fill the gap in the previous research and the results will be guiding the teachers who want to use the peer assessment in their classroom.
Title: Validating and Extending Pearson & Johnson’s Inferential Thinking Model
Abstract: Understanding the construct of inferential reasoning in narratives is essential when teaching social skills, context, and inferring casual relationships between characters. This study investigated whether Pearson and Johnson;s (1978) Script Implied and Text-Implied Inferences, and inferences that demonstrate a combination of both, are all different levels of an ordinal inferential reasoning continuum, in context of narrative comprehension in a multimodal sequential image format (i.e., Comics). Using a researcher-made comic survey containing a series of short three panel narratives, 69 participants, ages 8-12, provided an inference as to why a character engaged in an intentional action, what the moral of the comic was, and their reasoning behind both answers. Responses were then coded for the type of inference made (text-implied; script-implied; or a combination of both), which are hypothesized to be ordinal, with the combination category being at the top of the continuum, and text-implied inferences being at the bottom. Masters’ (1982) Partial Credit Model, an ordinal Rasch-family model, was used to estimate item and step difficulties, person proficiencies, and fit statistics. Output measures, including step difficulties and reliability (coefficient alpha .77; person-separation reliability .83), indicate that this construct behaves in an ordinal fashion. Person proficiency was also regressed on age, which was found to be a significant predictor of scoring into higher categories on this continuum. This line of research provides important insights for educational practitioners to provide targeted instruction in narrative comprehension, casual reasoning, argumentation, and social skills development.
2B: Room 2320
Moderator: Dr. Katherine Shizuko Suyeyasu
Title: A Compassion-Based Group Intervention for At-Risk Children
Abstract: In recent years, psychologists have become increasingly interested in compassion as it relates to mental health, prosocial behaviors, and physiological responses to stress. There has also been a rise in the development of interventions aimed at cultivating compassion for both individuals and groups. Meta-analytic findings of compassion-based interventions with adults show significant moderate effects on compassion, self-compassion, mindfulness, depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and wellbeing. The few studies that have examined compassion-based interventions with youth have reported children and adolescents to find the interventions engaging and useful. In this presentation, I will propose a compassion-based group intervention for at-risk elementary school children, as well as an empirical study to evaluate the impacts of the intervention. The impact of the intervention will be assessed by comparing pre- and post-intervention ratings of children’s social, emotional, and behavioral functioning, as well as through semi-structured interviews with the child participants. Additionally, process data will be collected throughout the intervention via observations of critical learning moments and child ratings of the acceptability of weekly activities.
Title: Maintenance & Development of Youth Translation Skills: Workshops for Bilingual Youth
Abstract: Language-minority students in the United States face significant barriers in school, resulting from deficit ideologies held by educators, enforced by education policy, and often internalized by the students themselves (Macedo, 2000; Ovando, 2003; Tsuda, 2013; Valdés, 2010). This curriculum attempts to counteract these deficit ideologies by providing an additive language environment for bilingual students in the US, where they can reflect on and learn about the unique linguistic skills they bring to the classroom, global economy, and local communities. The curriculum also seeks to help students develop those skills further and apply them in future educational, professional, and civic experiences.
The United States is rich with immigrants from diverse linguistic backgrounds yet “Only 18% of Americans report speaking a language other than English, while 53% of Europeans can converse in a second language” (Skorton & Altschuler, 2012, pg. 1). Due to the pervasiveness of English-only, subtractive language education policies, immigrant youth who enter the US school system speaking a language other than English are increasingly unable to maintain that language as they progress through the system (Song, 2016). This lack of multilingual Americans has led to a severe shortage of local interpreters who are needed to serve the growing immigrant population (Gonzalez, 2015). The legacy of the English-only movement in the US has served to suppress what is potentially the country’s best opportunity to produce and maintain multilingual future generations: our language-minority students.
Proposition 227 was repealed in 2016 and public schools in California can now begin to redevelop programs that cultivate both English and students’ native languages. It is important for educators in California to seize this opportunity and lead the way in creating innovative pedagogy that encourages the maintenance and development of heritage languages. Through utilization of this or similar curriculum, it is also possible to increase interest in career paths like medical and legal interpretation.
In this paper, I examine the implementation of a translation curriculum for bilingual youth in an after-school college-access program that supports high school students from low-income, underserved communities of Oakland, California. The participants included ten bilingual high school sophomores – eight who speak English and Spanish and two who speak English and Cantonese.
The curriculum has three main themes: 1) student reflection on their bilingualism and translation skills; 2) connecting translation skills to academic literacy; and 3) exploration of bilingual career paths and trainings in professional interpretation. Through observation, interviews, and surveys, I evaluate to what extent the students developed more positive ideologies around their language practices, increased their understanding of the benefits of and need for bilingualism and interpretation skills, and acquired additional skills and resources to help them continue developing those abilities. Based on these results, I identified opportunities for improvement in order to develop the best possible tool to meet these purposes. I aim to contribute to the small but growing body of research about youth translation and provide a tool for educators who seek to improve academic and economic outcomes for language-minority students.
Title: Creating a College-Going Culture: Examining an Academic Partnership Program from the Implementers’ Perspectives
Abstract: This case study investigated the implementation of the university-based “Roads to College” academic partnership program based on the perspectives of its administrators and staff. The case study allowed for a deeper look into the dynamics of how a university outreach program functions to bridge the everyday world of a higher education institution with the everyday worlds of underrepresented students in secondary schools, in light of the educational equity mission of the program. Bridging Multiple Worlds (BMW) Theory was utilized to examine how this program bridged the cultural worlds of higher education and underrepresented secondary students. BMW Theory (Cooper, 2011) is an ecological model of development that does more than center on the development of students across worlds. It also concerns how social and institutional support structures can be designed as collaborations to help underrepresented students navigate academic pathways toward college and careers. Yet to date, we have limited evidence on how institutional implementers view their programs, program design, theory of action, and the roles of program implementers. Participants from the university academic partnership program included two administrators and four staff coordinators delivering services to local high schools. The investigation followed an exploratory qualitative case study design (Baxter & Jack, 2008; Yin, 2003). Data sources included audio recordings and transcripts of semi-structured interviews with participants as well as program design and implementation documents. Thematic content analysis was utilized for coding data, through which a priori and emergent codes were captured to identify and triangulate core consistencies and meanings across data and data sources (Mostyn, 1985; Patton, 2002).
Administrators focused on implementation goals and challenges of maintaining program funding, staff training and communication about day-to-day progress, student data, and district climate for collaboration. Staff coordinators discussed goals and challenges associated with providing services including tutoring, individualized college counseling, exploration of college majors and potential career paths, and college visits. In-depth analyses revealed the importance of coordinated teamwork between program administrators and staff and continuous adaptation to unfolding, often unpredictable, resources and shifts in and across university, school district, and individual school policies. Examples at the university included opportunities to design new activities based on collaboration with other outreach programs, such as MESA. Examples at the schools included introduction of locally developed college outreach initiatives that overlapped with university program services. Findings of this study highlight the importance of intersegmental collaborations among K-12 schools and university pre-college programs from the perspectives of institutional administrators and frontline staff who establish and maintain effective relationships to provide services supporting diverse students’ access to college.
Alejandra Ojeda-Beck and Bryce Becker
Title: Using Automated Quantitative Text Complexity Tools to Assess Graphic Novels
Abstract: Historically, graphic novels have frequently been dismissed in the English Language Arts classroom because researchers and practitioners alike have assumed their language and themes are not academic in nature. More recently, research has begun to support the use of graphic novels to cover content in multiple disciplines, such as World War II history lessons (e.g., Maus, Spiegelman, 1997; Dallacqua, 2012). However, to date, no research has investigated such texts for their linguistic characteristics (e.g., vocabulary, sentence structure, lexical cohesion). Thus, I explored the text complexity of graphic novels, using automated quantitative text complexity tools, in order to evaluate the appropriateness of graphic novels in high school classrooms and the utility of such tools with this text format. To do so, I utilized the leveling measure used by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS; NGACBP & CCSSO, 2010), Lexile Analyzer, and Educational Testing Service’s TextEvaluator. Although quantitative text complexity tools have some shortcomings, using those measures employed for other texts used in high school classrooms allows for comparison between “traditional” texts and graphic novels.
2C: Room 3635
Union Printmaking Workshop
Featuring: Frankie Ramos, Eddie Rivero, Sophia Sobko and Renee Starowicz
Description: Join us in printing rad messages and images on fabric patches! Help spread our student workers union’s bargaining demands and collectively imagine how to make the university less oppressive and more just for all!
2D: Room 3515
Moderator: Dr. Richard Freishtat
Justin Jacques; Yoonsuh Moh The George Washington University
Title: The Impact of Sleep Quality on College Student’s Academic Success when Controlling for Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Substance Use: A Quantitative Study
Abstract: For the U.S. to continue to compete in today’s global market, it is salient that an ever-growing number of emerging adults are attending institutions of higher education in the U.S. There are approximately 20 million students attending college yearly. Besides the personal and professional benefits, obtaining a college education can be stressful (Schwartz, 2017), and academic stress has been found to have a significant negative impact on sleep (Anderson., 2010). In a Gilbert & Weaver (2010) study 70% of students surveyed reported poor sleep quality. Additionally, research by Gaultney (2010) reported that 29% of the participants in the study were at risk for a sleeping disorder and 86% of the participants reported waking up tired. This data points to the fact that the majority of college students are not getting the sleep they need. One of the major consequence of poor sleep is its negative impact on academic achievement. Research has found that college students experience numerous sleep problems, which impact their academic performance (Anjum et al., 2014). Also, studies have found that those with better sleep quality and longer sleep report better learning and academic achievement (Flueckiger et al., 2014).
To further examine this national phenomenon related to sleep and its impact on academics, we are conducting a secondary data analysis. This proposed study will utilize the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) data collected by the American College Health Association. It will examine the relationship between sleep and academic achievement when controlling for mental health issues and substance use in U.S. college students. The NCHA is a nationally recognized survey that helps researchers understand students’ health habits, behaviors, and perceptions. The purpose of this paper presentation is to discuss the proposed study design and possible clinical implications of the study findings with the audience. Additionally, the audience will be invited to co-construct clinical application of these findings in creating interventions that will help college students obtain better sleep and therefore improve overall academic performance.
Additional background information for our study includes the American College Health Association’s (ACHA, 2009) National College Health Assessment (NCHA). This assessment found that students consistently identified sleep as a major factor impeding their academic performance. Our proposed study will add further detail to previous findings by pairing out confounding variables and adding additional demographic constructs for contextualization purposes.
It is of significance to note that our work is guided by the indivisible self, an evidence-based model of wellness, our proposed study views the key component of sleep and emerging adults from this holistic theoretical framework. Wellness is a way of life oriented toward optimal health and well-being in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated in a purposeful manner with a goal of living life more fully (Myers & Sweeney, 2005; 2014). It is important that sleep is conceptualized as a vital piece of a college student’s overall wellness from a holistic perspective and seen as a key facet in to academic achievement, which ultimately impacts our country’s future in an increasingly competitive world-wide economy.
Andrew Estrada Phoung, UC Berkeley; Judy Nguyen, Stanford University; Richard Freishtat, UC Berkeley; Fabrizio Mejia, UC Berkeley; Diana Heath, UC Berkeley; Ashley Lopez, UC Berkeley; Heaven Taylor, UC Berkeley; Danielle Hoague, UC Berkeley; Claire Bang, UC Berkeley; Angela Nguyen, UC Berkeley; Shahana Farooqi, UC Berkeley
Title: Quasi-Experimental and Randomized Control Trial Studies Examining the Effects of Adaptive Equity-Oriented Pedagogy on Student Achievement and Psychosocial Outcomes
Abstract: Not available
Andrew Estrada Phoung, UC Berkeley; Judy Nguyen, Stanford University; Fabrizio Mejia, UC Berkeley; Richard Freishtat, UC Berkeley; Shahana Farooqi, UC Berkeley; Ashley Lopez, UC Berkeley; Diana Heath, UC Berkeley; Heaven Taylor, UC Berkeley; Danielle Hoague, UC Berkeley; Claire Bang, UC Berkeley; Angela Nguyen, UC Berkeley
Title: Enhancing Instructors’ Adaptive Equity-Oriented Competencies: Comparing Instructor Professional Development Strategies through Randomized Control Trials
Abstract: Not available
2E: Room 4635
Moderator: Dr. Dor Abrahamson
Title: Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Academically Talented Adolescents
Abstract: Careers-related decisions are one of the most important decisions that individuals begin to make during adolescence (Gati & Saka, 2001). The ability to make effective decisions has important consequences for the individual’s vocational future, psychological well-being, and social acceptance (Mann, Harmoni, & Power, 1989). Growing research indicates that there are various factors that contribute to difficulties in career decision-making. The present paper aimed to examine the role of mindset, giftedness, and age in career decision-making difficulties in a sample of 600 academically talented students. The “Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire” (CDDQ) was used to evaluate decision-making difficulties experienced by students. Relevant findings and their implications will be discussed in the paper.
Title: “I needed to know I was not alone!”: A Critical Autoethnographic Analysis of “Non-Traditionally Aged” Student.”
Abstract: This paper makes the case for a reconsideration of older students pursuing undergraduate higher education. They are often referred to as “non-traditional” students. They are not. When lumped together in this way, they make up most student bodies and have for quite some time. When colleges and universities consider issues of diversity, equity, and inclusion, student age is subsumed under other intersecting identities. They are often homogenized and/or left out of literature due to successful completion rates and academic success.
The author graduated from a mid-sized community college, a small historically Black university (HBCU), and a large land grant R1 predominately white institution (PWI) as an older student and as a mother. She uses an autoethnographic approach to examine scholarship around adult students pursuing undergraduate degrees and highlights small gaps that have the potential to expand what we know about our students and strengthen the student experience writ large. Autoethnography blends elements of ethnography and autobiography while allowing the author space to be. It “acknowledges and accommodates subjectivity, emotionality, and the researchers influence on research” (Ellis, 201, n.p.). Specifically, she critically examines her own experiences and layers them within scholarship that explores (1) ageism and unwarranted assumptions about this demographic, (2) data collection, & (3) institutional type through a historical lens.
The literature shows that most non-traditionally aged students pursuing undergraduate education are women (National Center for Education Statistics, 2015). It is often difficult to gather and synthesize the experiences of this demographic because higher education, sexism, and stereotype-based assumptions converge to silence them. For the author, adding race further complicates the matter. Discussing their experiences is often considered whining or complaining and their age renders such behavior distasteful. Degree completion is celebrated without regard to how their experiences shaped their mental, emotional, or physical well-being. Historical analysis shows that the institution types she attended (community college, HBCU/normal school, land-grant instruction) have long standing histories of being able to recognize” if not meet ”the needs of the whole student without age being a limitation. Perhaps we have been looking in the wrong direction all along. Looking back might provide us what we need to be able to listen to and meet the needs of this demographic (Ogren, 2003).
Claire Seohyun Lee; Jessica Li, UIUC
Title: Improving Transfer of Training: Technological Factors Affecting Technology-Supported Training
Abstract: This is an integrative literature review that explores thirty-eight articles that discuss technological factors in technology-supported training. Articles are obtained from a variety of fields including, but not limited to, human resource development, management, instructional design (ID), information science (IS), and human-computer interaction (HCI). As a result of the analysis, four categories (learner, instructor, instructional design, and system & interface) and nineteen technological factors are identified from ninety-seven technological variables. Future researchers can benefit from using these distinctive technological factors for their research to understand the transfer of training in technology-supported settings. These future studies will help not only transfer of training scholars but also practitioners, such as training department, instructional designers, and instructors, to advance technology-supported training.
Keywords: technological factors, transfer of training, technology-supported, e-learning, online learning, computer-based training
2F: Room 5509
Moderator: Dr. Susan Holloway
Title: The History of Home/Schooling
Abstract: This conceptual history considers the development of the contemporary American homeschooling movement, considering the long interplay between “school” and “home.” Conceptually usefully but practically fictive, drawing a bright line between home and school is inauthentic to both the lived reality and intellectual construct of these institutions. Schools act in loco parentis when entrusted with the physical, intellectual, moral, and emotional safety of children. John Dewey wrote that the “ideal home,” generalized and organized, was the “ideal school.” Conversely, the American home is a clear extension of the schoolhouse, the place where moral and ethical; practical; and democratic values are imparted and cemented. Homeschooling thus both simultaneously deconstructs and elaborates on this relationship, illuminating longstanding tensions between the parental state and familial parents.
Title: Latino Families Homeschooling – A Double Counternarrative
Abstract: At the intersection of negative perceptions of Latino parental involvement in United States schools and the pursuit of alternative education through homeschooling, Latinos who homeschool their children live out a “double counternarrative”, as they simultaneously opt out of the dominant paradigm of conventional schooling and defy the myth that they do not care about education. Homeschooling is a growing educational alternative in the United States, wherein parents manage and supervise their own children’s education. Being a movement where parents advocate for their own children’s education with a significant commitment of personal and family resources, homeschoolers in the United States live a counternarrative in the face of the conventional system of full-time classroom schooling. As an additional layer, the choice that Latino families make to homeschool establishes a second counternarrative that profoundly asserts their concern about the education of their children and their desire to be deeply involved. The testimonios of Latina mothers in California highlight the lived reality of choosing an educational alternative that challenges personal, systemic, and societal expectations, revealing how homeschooling is a bold option for them to impact the lives of their children.
This study compiles the individual stories of three Latinas in San Jose, CA, through a testimonio methodology. The themes emerging from an analysis of the testimonios center around their own educational experience, the dreams they have for their children’s education, and a sense of wanting to give their children opportunities that they did not have themselves. The decision of each family to homeschool is affected by narratives common to the Latino experience, including multilingualism, migrant labor, and secondary school experiences that led to unattained personal goals for education. For these women, their own experience in education motivates their choices for their children. For the mother who grew up with a strong bilingual education in Puerto Rico and desires to continue a fully biliterate legacy for her children, homeschooling is one of the only options she could find in a state where bilingual education is not supported in her local public school system. For the mother who grew up in a migrant farm-working family, homeschooling offers a way for her to have more connection with her daughter and to actively expose her to opportunities for leadership and increased self-confidence. For the mother who felt neglected in the public school system, homeschooling allows her to have more time to attend to the personal needs of her children and encourage them toward an educational future that she was not encouraged to pursue. Each individual testimonio reveals an empowered response to the systemic difficulties that Latinos often face in the United States. This study contributes to the body of research that combats the myth that Latinos are uneducated and do not care about education. Each of these mothers cares deeply about the education of her children. The choice to homeschool is a dramatic step that reveals a deep commitment to making a positive impact on their future through education and strong family values.
Thaddeus Benjamin Herman
Title: The Baha’i Inspired Schools of India
Abstract: Many Iranian Bahá’ís settled in India in the decades before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. Many were also studying in India during the Revolution and found themselves forced to stay as the revolution unfolded, unable to return to Iran. The Bahá’ís, who constitute the largest religious minority in Iran, have been persecuted in that country since the 1979 revolution. Described as a “suspended genocide” by one scholar due to the potential for the situation to deteriorate at any time into a full genocide as defined in the United Nations Genocide Convention, this is a matter requiring urgent intervention. This research will bear insight into how a community, under persecution and who are not allowed to pursue higher education in their own country, has responded through the construction of schools for children of all backgrounds in India, despite abuse of their human rights.
The Bahá’ís teachings place a high priority on the importance of compulsory education for all. This, coupled with the relative flexibility available to them in the Indian cultural context, allowed many of these Iranian Bahá’ís began schools. To this date, systematic research into the story of Iranian Bahá’ís starting schools in India, the nature of the education they offer, the socio-political context that existed in India to allow these schools to be started, and the reason for their reputation as schools of exceptional quality, has been virtually non-existent in education and global studies literature. This research will investigate not only the historical consequences that led to Iranian Bahá’ís settling in India, but also the nature of Bahá’ís inspired education and curriculum of the schools. This particular example will be placed in the wider context of populations around the world which have experienced forms of education discrimination, whether it be the Bidoon of Kuwait, the Residential schools of North America, or the Bantu system of education in South Africa. This will be achieved through an approach employing ethnographic techniques, participatory action research as well, as historical document analysis, parts of which will be in the original Persian tongue.
Because of considerations of potential power differentials between the researcher and those being researched, coupled with the insight that the researcher may not know what knowledge would be most useful to the community, which is being studied, participatory research methodology will factor heavily into the design. Administrators of these schools, who come from an Iranian background, will be include in the development of the methods employed. From research questions, to the design of certain ethnographic elements, the innovative design of this project will incorporate many methods, all arrived at through participation with members of the population under review.
Title: Parental Autonomy Support and Academic Achievement in Academically Talented Adolescents
Abstract: In this two-part study, the association between parental autonomy support and academic achievement, commitment, and enjoyment was examined in two large groups of academically talented adolescents enrolled in an academic summer program. Results from the studies indicate that students who reported increased parental autonomy support were more successful in their classes, and reported enjoying their studies more than students with lower levels of self-reported autonomy support. However, higher levels of autonomy support did not predict higher levels of academic commitment in academically talented youth, as measured by the time students spent studying and completing assignments. The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of autonomy supportive parenting for high achieving populations. The implications and limitations of the findings are discussed, as well as a proposal for a future study.
2G: Room 4648
Moderator: Dr. Rick Mintrop & Liz Zumpe
Title: Intersectional Surveillance in Sport
Abstract: My project builds upon the intersection of sport, surveillance studies and Black feminism. In this paper, I provide a framework for understanding how structures and systems of control shape the agency and bodily autonomy of marquee student-athletes. This work can be used to identify opportunities for agency and equity within a surveilled system. As such, while this project provides a deeper understanding of the marquee student-athleteâ€™s lived experience under surveillance, it also illuminates connections to the lived experiences of Black communities under surveillance at large. it is my hope that this work will be used to identify opportunities for agency and equity within a surveilled system, by challenging current student-athletes to defiantly look back.
Title: Branding and Organizational Culture at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Abstract: More than ever, colleges and universities are experiencing pressure to distinguish themselves in an increasingly more competitive higher education marketplace. From their inception, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have navigated distinct challenges and perceptions in comparison to their historically-White counterparts as a result of their exclusive missions, including disproportionate access to funding and resources, underpaid faculty, and challenges to their academic rigor. Sevier (2002) posits that branding has some concrete benefits for colleges and universities, including differentiation (uniqueness compared to others in the marketplace), as well as increased revenue, staffing, retention, buy-in, and support. The purpose of this study is twofold: to understand the organizational cultures of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and to explore how the organizational cultures of each HBCU (and of all of the institutions collectively) contributes toward each institution’s brand equity. Using Schein’s Model of Organizational Culture, as well as Hatch & Schultz’s Vision-Culture-Image Alignment Model, the study will analyze organizational culture at Virginia’s four-year HBCUs and what connections, if any, exist between culture and institutional perceptions of brand equity through the eyes of students and key administrators. This inquiry will use interviews, document analysis, and observation to develop a rich description of organizational culture at each institution and across the selected institutions.
Title: Learning Design Through Science vs. Science Through Design
Abstract: This research investigates two ways of framing design projects and their impacts on learning. The study explores the benefits of learning science concepts before or during a design project. Based on the NGSS science and engineering practices, in an engineering condition, students learn the necessary science concepts during a design project. In a science condition, students learn the science concepts first, then apply them during a design project. The study explores the benefits of each approach to inform instructional design. We use the knowledge integration framework to develop curriculum and assessment items, including an interactive computer model of a solar oven. Using three types of pre/posttest assessment items, we found students in both conditions gained insights on science and engineering design items; students in the engineering condition outperformed the science condition on a science-design integration item and conducted more trials during the design process while using an interactive computer model.
3:30-4:45pm: Session 3
3A: Room 1635
Moderator: Dr. Michelle Wilkerson
Title: Positioning digital landscapes for perception and action: Scaffolding debugging in computer programming
Abstract: I present a detailed account of the interactional work between a programming instructor and a middle school student that leads to the resolution of an elusive error in the student’s code. By tracing the fine details of how this resolution came to be, I find that learning to debug in face-to-face interactions resembles a process of enskilment. The instructor works to position the digital environment for work-relevant forms of perception and action, creating opportunities for the student to participate in authentic debugging strategies calibrated to her understandings in the moment. Two interactional mechanisms are key to making this process possible: (1) The use of vague references to occasion the search for the error; and (2) the use of contracting and expanding question agendas to structure participation in specific forms of perception and action for debugging. Implications for supporting students’ engagement in debugging practices in computer programming classrooms will be discussed.
Title: Measuring Parent Involvement in Autism Spectrum Disorder Treatment
Abstract: Parents play a pivotal role in their children’s Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Treatment. Parent Involvement has been studied for decades in education and has indicated that parents can be involved directly at the school site, help with school work at home, and give children outside enrichment experiences. However, the current literature does not have reliable and valid way to measure parent’s involvement in their children’s ASD treatment. This dissertation proposal outlines the creation of a parent involvement measure based on parent involvement research in education as well as feedback from parents and experts. After gathering this information, a 30 item measure was developed to cover 6 domains of parent involvement; at the Clinic Site, Home Support, Outside Enrichment, Coordinating Services, and Advocacy/Research. Using item response theory, a pilot study with 26 parents found that the pilot measure had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83, person separation reliability = 0.85) and alternative forms reliability (r = 0.94); the majority of the items functioned the same across race and gender; and evidence that the measure was related to parent stress (-0.20) and parent self-efficacy (0.39) in the ways expected by the literature. The proposed dissertation aims to revise this measure using the results of this pilot study and validate the revised measure using a larger representative sample.
Title: College Students’ Self-Regulation in Online Vocabulary Learning Courses
Abstract: Online course enrollments have grown substantially faster than the overall higher education student body in the past decade. While online learning affords more flexible access to contents and instructions at any time, from any place with a computer and Internet access, not all online learners have the skills to succeed in online environments. Since there are many distractive elements that may deter or compromise learning without the direct presence of a teacher physically in the same space, greater self-regulation is needed for students to work independently in online courses. Self-regulation pertains to the degree to which students are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in their own learning process. It has proven to be the best predictor of students’ standardized test scores, and the effect of some self-regulation variables on students’ success was statistically significant. In order for students to maximally benefit from online learning environments, online courses must be purposefully designed to activate students’ self-regulated behaviors and then enhance their self-regulation. This study is primarily situated within Zimmerman’s theoretical framework of self-regulation, which includes three major phases of the self-regulation process: forethought phase, performance phase, and self-evaluation phase. Six elements that have been identified as crucial self-regulated factors predictive of students’ academic performance will be integrated into one weekly progress sheet: weekly instructional objectives, task navigation, self-recording, self-evaluation, additional support, environmental structuring. 90 college students will be involved in a one-semester online English vocabulary course, and the students will either be randomly assigned in an experimental group who receive weekly progress sheets or a control group who do not receive them. A mixed methods design will be employed in this study to identify whether weekly progress sheets activate and/or enhance online student self-regulation, improve students’ academic achievement, and/or influence their online learning experiences in an online English course.
3B: Room 2320
Moderator: Dr. Lloyd Goldwasser
Title: Democratic Education as an Expert Process: The Case of Math Education Research
Abstract: In schools of education across the United States, education experts work tirelessly to resolve social problems, particularly an alarming lack of democracy, equity and income equality. At the same time, it is common for these same education experts to note that at times the effort seems futile, and that we have little evidence of success. How did we get stuck in this conundrum? In this presentation, I describe a conceptual framework and early methodological considerations for my historical dissertation proposal engaging these issues. As my case, I consider my own field: math education research. I draw from the literature on professionalization to consider the influences of a variety of forces (both material and ideological) on the problems that professions take on and how they go about solving them. These forces include government and private funding mechanisms, university dynamics and public opinion. Initial work (Schneider, 2018) considered the underestimated influence of inter-professional competition on education expert’s claims to solve social problems and the favored approach of solving them with constructivist pedagogy (broadly construed). Namely, education experts maintain jurisdiction (Abbott, 1988) over an abstract concept of equity through enhanced agency, which not only legitimates our monopoly over teacher training, but serves as the basis for our practical work. In this way, math education researchers are able to both compete and cooperate with mathematicians and math teachers in order to carve out a niche in which we do our work.
Title: An Early Childhood Education in Embodiment: Willful Forms of Self-Regulation in Classroom-Based Yoga Interventions
Abstract: Self-regulation, the ability to maintain attention and modulate emotions’ has become recognized as a robust predictor to important outcomes across the life span (Moffitt et al., 2011). Self-regulation provides a foundation for children to access and employ dispositions conducive to learning and sustaining positive relationships (Blair, 2002). The importance of developing self-regulatory competencies early in life has been corroborated in longitudinal research that has demonstrated that self-regulation in early childhood predicts later health and educational attainment (Moffitt et al., 2011). Considering that plasticity associated with early development, there is interest in designing programs that impact SR during this developmental period (Kochanska, Murray, & Harlan, 2001).
Preliminary empirical evidence has identified contemplative practices, such as yoga and mindfulness meditation, as a means for developing self-regulation in early childhood education (Diamond, 2012). A recent meta-analysis of 35 randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental intervention studies using contemplative practices reported a small, yet statistically positive significant effect on cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes for school-age and preschool-age populations. These studies have demonstrated benefits consistent with the neurodevelopmental model of mindfulness, which postulates that contemplative practices develop children’s self-regulation by accessing top-down regulatory processes, while inhibiting bottom up influences to foster conditions conducive to reflection (Maynard, Solis, Miller, & Brendel, 2017; Zelazo & Lyons, 2012).
The purpose of this presentation is threefold: (a) review evidence on the use of contemplative practices in schools and discuss how these findings are consistent with the neurodevelopmental of mindfulness; (b) highlight how the conceptualization of self-regulation and target outcomes in extant literature can be extended; and (c) build from the neurodevelopment model of mindfulness and propose the theory of 4E cognition embodied, embedded, extended, and enacted cognition (Thompson, 2015; Valera, Thompson, & Rosch, 2017). I will introduce yoga within this 4E framework as a pedagogical practice designed to foster awareness in an embodied context in which the values of student agency, learning, and caring for others are cultivated. Implications of implementing yoga in early childhood education for the development of willful forms of self-regulation, embodiment, and learning are discussed (Roeser & Peck, 2009).
Meghna Soni; Yukari Okamoto, UC Santa Barbara
Title: Beyond Whole Numbers: Fostering Children’s Understanding of Fractions in Early Elementary School Grades
Abstract: It is well documented that fractions are the most complex mathematical concepts in primary grades and learning about them is an obstacle to the mathematical maturation of children. Only a small percentage of children demonstrate proficiency with fractions. Even though children are introduced to fractions in early grades, their proficiency with fractions has long-term implications in acquiring later competency and success in more advanced mathematics.
Many researchers tend to agree that children’s difficulties with fractions are due to their whole number knowledge. Some studies have demonstrated that prior understanding of whole numbers seems to hinder children’s understanding of fraction when they are first introduced to them. Many students try to apply the knowledge that they already have of working with whole numbers to fractions. This in turn privileges whole numbers over learning rational numbers like fractions.
Although, part-whole representations appear to be the dominant form used in the United States to teach students fractions, such representations interfere with students’ understanding of fractions along with whole number knowledge. Researchers have suggested that while part-whole representations can be useful, there are many disadvantages to using part-whole representations for fractions. Students do not have a problem understanding that when a pizza is cut into five equal pieces that each piece is 1/5. However, part-whole representations can fail to show negative fractions, improper fractions, fractions that have large denominators and numerators, and that there is an infinite number of fractions.
In contrast, number line could be a useful tool in fostering students’ understanding of fractions. Number lines can help students understand that fractions are numbers that extend the number system beyond whole numbers and it has been proposed that the number line is important for early numerical understanding. The number line is an effective tool that can be used by students to learn about fractions as numbers. The number line can also help students understand that there can be countless number of fractions. For example, a student can partition a number line into halves and then fourths and eventually understand that fractions can be divided into smaller and smaller fractions.
Studies have been done to gauge children’s understanding of an infinite number of fractions and found that even 9th graders have difficulty with the concept of infinite fractions between numbers and that none of the 9th graders showed advanced understanding of the concept. It has been noted how children need to acknowledge the existence of numbers between 0 and 1 first in order to eventually grasp the concept of infinite number of fractions.
Thus, intervention should be done at an early age to help children understand the concept of there being numbers beyond whole numbers since that is the first step and will help in the eventual understanding of their being an infinite number of fractions at a later age. Therefore, this study attempts to foster young children’s ( kindergarten or first grade) understanding of numbers beyond whole numbers through number line /measurement intervention.
3C: Room 3635
Design-Based Research Forum
Description: Students who participated in Professor Abrahamson’s Fall 2017 graduate seminar “Design-Based Research Forum” (EDUC 222C) will present their projects. These include results from implementing innovative activities for people to develop understanding and skills. Project will cover a diverse set of content domains ranging from special-education primary school through middle-school physics, high-school mathematics, interdisciplinary public-health professional teams, and much more.
Title: “Read, baby read”: Embodied rhythmic synchrony in a special needs classroom
Abstract: Transitioning between activities can be time-consuming and hard, especially transitioning into long activities such as reading. Given the variety of complex needs in special education classrooms, it is often difficult to gain full compliance from all the children, or engage their attention when transitioning. There has been little literature on easing children into transitions within special education, but mainstream classrooms sometimes use transition songs to assist with the process. Transition songs are often taught to children for activities unfavorable to them, such as cleaning up, or walking from one location to another in an organized and timely manner. These songs foster a shared sense of belonging within the class, where students coordinate their movements in accordance with the rhythm of the transition song, focusing their attention on the task at hand. Furthermore, these songs provide a fixed duration for the completion of the task, decreasing the amount of time students have in finishing the activity as a group.
This paper presents design-based rhythmic support for children with special needs based on the principle of concerting in an embodied rhythmic space. Our bodily capacity to sense rhythm allows us, in a multitude of circumstances, to connect to one another and concert in a shared collective, or even within a shared space mediated by pulse. In collaboration with a special education teacher, this paper designs a transition song for a class of students with complex needs, and tracks their progress with the song through 3 weeks as they experience rhythm corporeally, and intercorporeally, transitioning into activities as a collective.
Veronica Joyce Lin
Title: Symbols vs. Actions: Improving a Tangible Programming Interface for Children
Abstract: In programming interfaces for children, measuring lengths, and related activities, we observe that while visual representations can be permanent, the representations of action are only transitory, if at all present. The transformation from actions to symbol-based entities can create confusion, and this project seeks to explore the tensions between implicit action knowledge and symbolic representation. I conducted two semi-structured, task-based clinical interviews with 1st grade students; the ontological shift onto things created opportunities to negotiate about different properties and meanings. This revealed the relations that are diminished when the transformation from action to symbol occurs; while certain features of the inscriptions draw our visual attention, others are easily ignored.
Title: Puzzling Proofs
Abstract: Educational Design (Design-Based Research),Technology and Schooling,Theories of Learning
Title: Exploring Boundary Crossing in an Interdisciplinary Team
Abstract: Interdisciplinary teams must constantly negotiate both individual and group goals when working on a project. Understanding how to best negotiate these processes would be extremely helpful for program planning and implementation. By focusing on central objects that bring the team together as opposed to the individual aspects of each team member, one could gain insight into these dynamics surrounding the object.
The game designed consists of using colorful blocks to build a tower with a set of guiding rules for the group and individual rules that are not shared with the group. Players can either gain or lose points based on their rules, so each player must learn how to negotiate building the tower without revealing his or her own rules. Through subsequent rounds, players are eventually allowed to reveal the rules to one another.
Not only could this game help a specific team to better understand dynamics, but it also offers the opportunity to better understand some of the ways that learning mechanisms can play out. With this in mind, I am interested in understanding boundary crossing as it occurs when each player must keep the rules private compared with when an individual is allowed to reveal some data about his or her rules. Is there a difference in personal gain for each player? Does this better facilitate cooperation between players? Is there a method that emerges to organize the rules once they are revealed?
Title: Experiencing Vectors through Action: An Embodied Design Approach to Forces
Abstract: In order for students to better grasp concepts such as mechanics, they must be able to reconcile misconceptions they may bring with them from prior experiences with the physical world. This study takes a look at the difficulties that students have in approaching physics, and implements an approach that promotes more active learning (Meltzer & Thornton, 2012). An embodied design framework offers a way for students to adopt new frames of reference and shift their understanding of concepts. A learning environment based in an embodied design model can allow students to approach a problem in physics or a variety of other disciplines using their own natural movements to experience abstract concepts first, and signify them later (Abrahamson & Lindgren, 2014). Through this approach, students can reconcile their own preconceptions with implicit characteristics of abstract physical concepts such as vector mechanics that are in direct conflict with their own intuitions about the natural world.
3D: Room 4635
Moderator: Dr. Sophia Rabe-Hesketh
Title: Teachers of Latino English Language Learners in Two Urban High Schools: Policies, Perceptions, and Practices
Abstract: Myriad policies aimed at improving academic outcomes for Latino “English Language Learner” (ELL) students have not succeeded and even been detrimental for their learning (Gándara & Hopkins, 2010; Olsen, 2009). This is exacerbated by deficit-driven policies that fail to build on students’ linguistic and cultural resources (Valenzuela, 1999; Bartlett & Garcia, 2011; Gutierrez, Asato, Santos & Gotanda, 2002). Even under less restrictive language policies, implementation is mediated by differing interpretations and contextual influences within districts and schools (Coburn, 2006; Penuel, 2008; Hill, 2006) as well as competing instructional policies and overlapping district mandates. Teachers’ influence on policy implementation is pivotal because decisions they make directly influence students’ learning opportunities (Dabach, 2011, 2015; Garcia & Menken, 2010; English & Varghese, 2010).
Through this embedded case study I examine how ELL policy is enacted in two under-resourced high schools where 40% of students are classified as ELL, 90% of whom are Latino. I explore how ELD and Sheltered Instruction teachers perceive and respond to academic and social needs of their students in two different schools in the same district. I analyze how a district language policy that promotes bilingualism and biliteracy plays out in these two schools. Specifically, I examine how policy messages are interpreted and enacted at a district and school level and the interplay between district mandates and district and school level actors’ beliefs and practices.
Data included in-depth interviews with district and site administrators (n=8) and teachers (n=13). Additionally, I triangulated data with field notes from classroom observations and district, school, and teacher meetings. The conceptual framework combined policy implementation theory with theory on schools and teachers as the context of reception for immigrant students.
Findings reveal how district and school administrators respond to policies and external demands and compensate for their constraints differently. One school emphasizes a sheltering approach for Latino immigrant ELL students that creates a safe environment, emphasizes students maintaining their primary language, and prioritizes ELL students graduating. The other school has an inclusive (non-segregated) approach that emphasizes rapid acquisition of English and holds the same expectations for ELL and non-ELL students, including meeting college entry requirements as well as graduating from high school. At each school, teachers vary widely in their beliefs about students’ cultural practices and learning potential, perceptions of their own constraints and opportunities, responses to the disparity of resources and support systems for ELL students, ability to draw on students’ linguistic and cultural resources, and compliance with district mandates.
Implications are that program structures and school-level approaches for shaping ELL students’ opportunities must be examined. Additionally, further research is needed on how to organize schools that are both safe yet not segregated to create a favorable context of reception for Latino immigrant ELL students. Finally, preparation and ongoing instructional support for teachers of ELL students must help teachers develop pedagogical strategies that are effective within constrained conditions and foster cultural understanding, caring, and ways to build on students’ linguistic and cultural resources.
Yoonsuh Moh, Justin Jacques
Title: A Latent Class Analysis of Suicide Risk Behaviors in College Students
Abstract: Imagine, how many people attend institutions of higher education in the U.S. It is approximately 20 million people at any give year. Having a college education has a wide range of personal and professional benefits, but the college years can be stressful (Schwartz, 2017). For some college-age students, major psychiatric illness may emerge during this timeframe. It can also be stressful that significant personal and psychological developments occur during this period. It is important to understand the significance of suicide among college students since it is the 2nd leading cause of death for this population in the U.S. (Taub & Thompson, 2016).
Taking into account this significant, national phenomenon, we are conducting a secondary data analysis study using the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) data collected by the American College Health Association to conduct a latent class analysis of suicide risk behaviors in U.S. college students. The purpose of this presentation is to elaborate on a working research agenda for the proposed study by inviting the audience to discuss strategies to achieve the goal.
A background for our study includes the findings from the latest NCHA assessment noting that suicidal behaviors are unfortunately common among the college students who participated in their study. In particular, in the spring of 2016, 7.3% of undergraduates reported nonsuicidal self-injury, which is a significant risk factor for suicide. 10.5% of the participants reported serious thoughts of suicide while 1.6% reported a suicide attempt in the prior year. These rates have increased in the past 2 to 3 years, but there is no organized system for colleges to report student deaths including the loss to suicide. Current suicide rates among college students are not yet defined either. As of 2015, the annual suicide rate among people age 20 to 34 years increased to 15.5% per 100,000 people from 12 to 13 per 100,000 people in 2009 (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention; AFSP, 2017).
Guided by the indivisible self, an evidence-based model of wellness, our study viewed suicide and suicide risk behaviors in college students from this holistic theoretical framework. Wellness is a way of life oriented toward optimal health and well-being in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated in a purposeful manner with a goal of living life more fully (Myers & Sweeney, 2005; 2014). Typically, risk factors are characteristics or conditions that increase the chance that a person may try to take their life (AFSP, 2017). Some risk factors associated with suicide involve mental health conditions, substance use disorders, serious or chronic health conditions, stressful life events, prolonged stress factors (e.g., relationship problems and bullying), access to lethal means, exposure to another person’s suicide, a family history of suicide, and previous suicide attempts. Regardless of the significance of these findings, it would be imperative that suicide is conceptualized in a broader realm in relation to a lack of one’s wellness.
Title: Monolingual biliteracy – a story about Norwegian biliterate education
Abstract: According to a traditional definition, Norwegian is counted as one single language, consisting of several mutually comprehensive dialects, thus speakers of Norwegian are usually counted as monolingual. Spoken Norwegian has two forms as a written medium, Bokmål and Nynorsk, unevenly represented in the different regions of Norway. All Norwegian pupils are, to a certain extent, taught in their own dialect and offered mandatory teaching in both written variants, an education policy that dates back to the late 19th century. Nevertheless, until recently research into the consequences of this multidialectal/biliterate situation has been unsatisfactory.
In recent years, attempts have been made to link good school results in typical Nynorsk areas, with the cognitive advantages usually associated with bilingualism. When bilingualism has come into focus, it is because of the notion concerning the possible cognitive, cultural and societal benefits of bilingualism. Yet, concurrence is not necessarily the same as connection. A question that naturally arises is whether two written varieties can be considered as two different languages, and whether active users of both can be considered bilingual enough to enjoy these benefits.
In this presentation, I will try to illuminate the conceptualization of this particular linguistic situation. First, I will outline some definitions regarding literacy and biliteracy. Second, through some selected examples, I would like to point to some concepts that are important to understand the ongoing Norwegian discussion. Further, I will outline the background of the Norwegian language situation and highlight some important arguments in today’s language debate on whether Norwegians are bilingual or not. In the end, I argue for the use of monolingual biliteracy as a possible way to describe the Norwegian language situation.
3E: Room 5509
Moderator: Dr. Laura Sterponi
Kristin Kibsgaard Sjohelle
Title: Language Learning Through Digital Discussions
Abstract: The two varieties of Norwegian, Bokmål and Nynorsk, are both official written languages in Norway, and are taught in mandatory education as either a first-choice or second-choice variety. However, Bokmål is the dominant language in newspapers, literature and on Norwegian Internet pages, and Nynorsk is hardly present in students’ everyday lives, apart from in their textbooks at school. Even though the two written varieties are mutually understandable, many high school students find it constraining to express themselves in Nynorsk as the second-choice variety. Their main focus is generally on correct spelling and grammar and their use of dictionary is extensive.
The teaching of Nynorsk can serve as an example of traditional second language teaching, and of the challenges of making the second language function as a tool for communication among the learners. In this presentation I use material and findings from a larger intervention study in a Norwegian senior high school class, that aimed to examine alternative ways of teaching and learning Nynorsk. The main intention was to make the students in this class write Nynorsk often and for different purposes, and particularly in digital communication. Digital texts would generally be the arena where Nynorsk is the least present in the students’ everyday lives.
One of the mandatory assignments the students were given, was to have a written debate in a symmetrical digital discussion forum. The debate was carried out by 18 students during 40 minutes in a computer lab. The students were given several questions that all had to do with learning Nynorsk and methods of teaching this subject, which functioned as starters of the discussion. During this one lesson, 150 texts on the topic “learning Nynorsk”, were produced, all of which were written in Nynorsk. At the end of the assignment the students reflected upon their writing experiences during the digital discussion; both upon how they engaged themselves in the particular topic, and in the interaction with the other students, and also how they experienced using Nynorsk as the used language form of the discussion.
The material obtained from this digital discussion has given me the opportunity to study how high school students express their challenges and affordances in learning to write a second language like Nynorsk, particularly through a digital arena such as the discussion forum. The presentation highlights some of the findings in the material that can serve as indicators of what teachers will have to take into consideration when using such an arena for second language learning.
Title: Unstitching Third World Girls and Education: The politics of poverty and development
Abstract: This works explores the relationships between third world girls, education, and the politics of poverty and development. This work aims to contribute to the growing body of literature that is seeking to unstitch third world girls and education. In this work the notion of unstitching third world girls and education refers to the ways education has come to be the one-size fits all approach to solve all of the problems of third world girls. There is a plethora of scholarship which illuminates how education has the potential to transform the lives of girls in the third world but there is not equally rigorous documentation of the losses that may come with schooling, contestation of the ways the bodies of third world girls are inhabited as sites of development, and the way visuals have been utilized to produce a homogenized third world girl subject. This work asks you to unravel your own stitched together beliefs and understandings about third world girls and education.
Maria Valentina Fahler; Patrick Guardian, UC Santa Barbara; Ziying Yu, Fudan University & UC Santa Barbara; Charles Bazerman, UC Santa Barbara
Title: Data Practices in Linguistics
Abstract: Abundant literature in English explores the role of academic literacy, writing centers (Thaiss et al., 2012), genres that circulate in the university context (Nesi & Gardner, 2012), and the development of writers during their college years (Lillis, 2015; Geisler, 1994). However, there is scarce research that focuses on working with data; particularly, data collection and representation within the different fields (Bazerman, forthcoming).
We will present an ongoing project that aims to understand how the process of data collection and analysis relates to writing practices in Linguistics. The research questions that guide the study are 1) how are students introduced to the data collection, representation, and analysis processes in Linguistics and 2) how do students learn, understand and use those practices? In order to answer these questions, during the 2018 winter term, a qualitative study of a linguistics course from a university in Southern California is being carried out.
The participants of this study are the professor of the course, the TAs, and the students. The study employs several data sources. First, there is one semi-structured interview with the professor at the beginning of the term to obtain information about the goals and expectations of the course, the students, and about the writing practices throughout the class. Second, there are two focus groups with the TAs, one after the first assignment is due and one at the end of the course. These groups provide data on what difficulties the TAs find in their students’ writing practices, how they deal with them, and what progress they observe in their students’ writing. Third, a sample of students complete a series of 3 online surveys throughout the course. The first survey elicits demographic information, previous experience regarding data practices in linguistics, and course expectations. The second and third surveys elicit information about their development within the course on issues regarding data collection and analysis. Finally, documents from the class’ online space, such as the syllabus and assignments, are examined. This data provides us information on how the process of data collection, analysis and representation is expressed and fostered. Furthermore, the students will be requested to hand in writing samples from different assignments done within the course. This data will enable us to compare and contrast different stages of the learning process. Preliminary results and analysis of the data collected will be displayed and discussed.
Addressing these issues will lead to a greater understanding of how students are being prepared and motivated for a future research career, as well as how students become experts in their field (Geisler, 1994). Furthermore, in a broader sense, it will provide information on what the epistemology of students in higher education is; in other words, what is students’ knowledge and how do they build knowledge.
5:00-6:00pm: Evening Poster Session in the Ed/Psych Library
Dr. Leena Furtado; Greg Proctor, CSUDH
Title: Advancing Graduate Research Writing Support at Hispanic-Serving Institutions
Abstract: According to the United States Census Bureau, by 2021 one in four students in the United States will be of Hispanic origin. On a national scale, however, these students reflect the lowest rates of Americans earning college degrees. The U.S. Department of Education reports that this group suffers from educational disadvantages that begin in the primary K-12 years and continue through post-secondary education. As a result, these students have the lowest college completion rates of any racial group. Furthermore, current efforts to close the academic achievement gap between Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations in the U.S. have not been effective. These educational challenges are especially evident at California State University, Dominguez Hills (CSUDH) a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI). Nationally, lower rates of graduation for Hispanics at the undergraduate level translate directly into lower rates of enrollment and degree completion for post-baccalaureate Hispanics. Nearly half of all freshmen regularly admitted to the CSU System during the past decade have required remedial instruction in either English or mathematics, or both, while only one-third of UC freshmen have required remedial instruction in English. These academic challenges represent both a challenge and an opportunity to implement programs that recruit from the undergraduate pool and support first time graduate students in successfully attaining post-baccalaureate education and advanced degrees.
To expand the number of Hispanic and disadvantaged graduate students to successfully enroll in and complete post-baccalaureate degrees, CSUDH, a comprehensive public university located in Carson, California, has created the Graduate Writing Institute for Excellence (GWIE). The GWIE Center endeavors to excel in the following goals: 1) strengthen the academic performance of the targeted students through the provision of regular academic reading comprehension and writing, graduate study skills, critical thinking and analysis of research in the discipline, scholarship presentation and exclusive boot-camps and incentives to student theses and capstone project writing pursuits; 2) build targeted studentsâ€™ self-efficacy, empowerment, and collaborative dispositions through training, internships and service activities; 3) provide new and special student orientations and services designed to familiarize students with campus resources, graduate academic policies, and applications to doctoral programs and professional employment opportunities; 4) promote and facilitate collaborative scholarly research among faculty and students, including incentives to pursue theses and capstone projects; and 5) provide seminars to support faculty on why and how to tailor pedagogy to the needs of diverse and non-traditional and underrepresented graduate students. Year 1 &2 the GWIE Center has served 6,263 students and 2,158 faculty within the various program services to fulfill the grant goals.
Title: What’s Neurodiversity got to do with it? Communication and community access
Abstract: This poster will explore the literature review and basic outline of my dissertation project. An embedded ethnographic study with a local organization that is run by disabled folks for disabled folks. Interviews, video data and discourse analytic approaches will be used to consider what Communication Profiles mean in day-to-day activities of participants, staff and community members. As well, the opportunities afforded through an organization that forefronts the Neurodiversity paradigm in its principles and trainings will be examined through interactional conversation data. Finally, film will play a key role in the dialog of participants and researcher about communication and will be used to develop a short educational film related to assumptions regarding communication and AAC access for individuals labeled non-verbal.
Title: Interrogating Global Education Programs for U.S.-based High School Youth: Applying a Critical Cosmopolitan Framework to Practice.
Abstract: Global education programs for U.S.-based high school youth have steadily been gaining popularity. Often taking students to formerly colonized countries, some of these educational programs have invested in equity and work to make these opportunities available to low-income students in the U.S. Such programs are invested in global competence, global citizenship, and global responsibility. In the academic literature, cosmopolitanism has been re-theorized as a way of being in our globalized world that is particularly concerned with the relationship with a different, often global Other. While globalization is a phenomenon of internationalization and global education focuses on learning about the world’s cultures, cosmopolitanism is concerned with moral dispositions of individuals within this. Because of their related nature, this study attempts to bridge the cosmopolitan academic literature with global education practice. More specifically, this study interrogates one of these global education programs, and asks how notions of cosmopolitanism are present within it. Using a framework for critical cosmopolitanism informed by the cosmopolitan literature (Matthews & Sidhu, 2005; Beck, 2004; Delanty, 2009; Stornaiuolo, Hull & Hall in press; Siverstone, 2006; Bender, 2017; Hansen, 2010; Go, 2013; Robbins & Horta, 2017; Lamont & Aksartova, 2002; Appiah, 2006 & 2017; Kurasawa, 2004; Mignolo, 2000), this study seeks to apply mostly theoretical conversations about cosmopolitanism to existing educational practice.
Title: The Role of Schools and Teachers within the School to Prison Pipeline
Abstract: Juvenile incarceration rates in the United States far exceed the rates of juvenile incarceration in another developed nations. Black and Latino youth, youth with disabilities, and youth from low-income families are most at-risk of becoming suspended or expelled from school, further increasing their chance of becoming incarcerated. The school-based factors that increase the likelihood of juvenile delinquency is a process known as the school to prison pipeline. Though much literature has studied the school to prison pipeline, there is little to no research on the characteristics and role that teachers play in the school prison-pipeline. Thus, this paper examines the school to prison pipeline and analyzes the role that schools and teacher characteristics play in promoting or weakening the pipeline. The education-based factors that promote the pipeline and the students most at-risk of being victimized are examined. Teacher effects, teacher expectations, and teacher bias are also examined in order to highlight their relationship to student outcomes as they relate to the pipeline. Interventions aimed at reducing teacher bias, low expectations, and punitive policies will be reviewed.
Rebecca Cruz; Janelle E. Rodl, SFSU
Title: Crime and Punishment: An Examination of School Context and Student Characteristics that Predict Out-of-School Suspension
Abstract: Exclusionary discipline can have long-term adverse effects on both students and schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the school context and student characteristics that are predictors of out-of-school suspension to determine if there are disparities in outcomes across demographic groups and whether existing disparities are reducing over time. The sample consisted of archival data from 2010-2016 for approximately 56,000 students in 41 schools in a California school district that adopted school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) to reduce exclusionary discipline. This study examined students’ suspension risk using a multilevel model. Results affirm the importance of school-level factors, as well as a combination of practices that seek to change school culture with regard to reducing exclusionary discipline.
Title: Measures of dyslexia subtypes in Spanish-speaking populations
Abstract: This research addresses methodological problems in the empirical literature about dyslexia subtypes in Spanish-speaking populations, and proposes a new methodology to correct them. There are at least four potential problems in how previous studies identify dyslexia subtypes: 1) subtype groups are created ex-ante, which precludes the possibility of concluding that these subtypes do not exist; 2) given the theoretical constructs, the actual identification strategy presents a clear reverse causality problem; and 3) there is a clear omitted-variables bias since they do not control for characteristics as relevant as verbal work memory, reading experience, and print exposure. By solving these problems, my new methodology allows to falsify the theory about different types of dyslexia by analyzing the symptoms of this disability in Spanish-speaking populations.
Leslie Buffen; Marjorie Rowe, Alison Billman, P. David Pearson, UC Berkeley
Title: Assessing Science Knowledge and Language Use in Emergent Bilingual First Grade Students
Abstract: Case studies of five emergent bilingual first graders who participated in an individually administered performance task and guided interview to assess their science knowledge, target vocabulary, and control of causal language structures. Part of a larger design based research study to develop an integrated science and literacy curriculum for first grade students, the case studies were conducted to verify and further elaborate the nature of select students’ quantitative pre- to post-test growth on the assessment, known as Science Knowledge Assessment (SKA).
Looking at five students who were identified through the quantitative SKA analysis as doing well, a qualitative coding scheme provided insight into what “doing well” or not doing well looked like. Initial findings suggest that qualitative analyses sometimes, but not always, added nuance to quantitative analyses. Additionally, qualitative analyses do not always yield a more positive view of a child’s knowledge or growth. Overall, both scoring schemes provide valuable information about each student’s performance. The quantitative measures illuminate areas for revision of the SKA items and scoring protocols because they are so fine-grained and a large number of participants (80+) provide an opportunity for patterns to emerge. However, the qualitative measures appear to present a more trustworthy index of growth. Taken together, the two complementary approaches to data analysis illuminate the affordances and constraints of qualitative and quantitative assessments of science knowledge and language use with emergent bilingual first graders.
Title: Validity and Reliability of a Rating Scale for Cosmopolitan Orientation
Abstract: A rating scale measuring college student’s cosmopolitan orientation is proposed for the purpose of understanding student learning and improving instruction of online cosmopolitan education courses at UC Berkeley. The scale consists of components measuring characteristics including Civic Engagement/Social Responsibility, Connectedness, Care for all Human Beings, Value in Dialogue, as well as Value in Cultural Diversity. The reliability of the scale has been studied by examing its internal consistency, and alternate forms consistency. The validity evidence gathered include content validity, validity in response processes, internal structure, relations to other variables, consequences validity, and also validity regarding fairness. The future direction of this project includes transforming the existing measure into a multidimensional scale, developing more items for alternate forms used in pretest and post-test and improving the reliability and validity of the instrument.
Breauna Spencer; Dr. Sharnnia Artis, UC Irvine; Dr. Marjorie Shavers, Heidelberg University; Dr. Stacie Gregory, Equity for Engineers; Aishwarya Joshi, Heidelberg University
Title: The Niela Project: A Qualitative Investigation of the Experiences of Black Women in Pursuit of Doctorates & Postdoctorates in Engineering and Computing.
Abstract: Black women are gorssly underrepresented in the fields of engineering and computer science as it has been reported that Black women earned 0.9%, 0.6%, and 0.5% of B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees awarded in engineering and computer science in 2015 (Yoder, 2015). The objective of this 4-year National Science Foundation funded study, The Niela Project: A Qualitative Investigation of the Experiences of Black Women in Pursuit of Doctorates & Postdoctorates in Engineering and Computing, is to increase understanding of how the experiences of Black female doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars impact their academic persistence and overall well-being. This understanding is crucial for higher education personnel, which includes faculty, researchers, and administrators as well as Black women in STEM degree programs. Our research team conducted 40 one-on-one interviews and have analyzed data from 13 ethnographic interviews. Preliminary findings reveal that Black women have an increased awarness of their race and gender due to sense of pressure to challenge stereotypes and be a trail blazer for other Black women in these doctoral programs. This qualitative investigation is grounded in the tenet that one cannot serve or impact a community that is not genuinely understood and often overlooked.
Laleh Cote and Elisa Stone (University of California, Berkeley); Kelly Barry, Jess Krim, and Sharon Locke (Southern Illinois University Edwardsville); Wilella Burgess and Loran Carleton Parker (Purdue University); Sanlyn Buxner (University of Arizona); Jessica Dwyer (University of Utah); Larry Horvath (San Francisco State University); John Keller (University of Colorado, Boulder); SoonChun Lee (Wichita State University); Bryan Rebar (University of Oregon); Renee’ Schwartz (Georgia State University)
Title: Preliminary findings from a literature review about Teacher Research Experience (TRE), Undergraduate Research Experience (URE), and Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) programs in STEM fields
Abstract: There has been extensive research published on the potential benefits to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates of participating in research experiences, with respect to learning gains, skill development, and persistence in STEM fields, to name a few. However, published work on the potential benefits to pre-service and in-service teachers of participation in similar programs is much more limited, despite many similarities between programs geared toward students and teachers. Through a systematic search of relevant terms, we generated a list of 450 papers of potential use toward our goals for this project. This collection includes papers about Teacher Research Experiences (TREs) from years 2007-2017, and papers about both Undergraduate Research Experiences (UREs) and Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) from years 2014-2017. Our team developed two tools to facilitate the effort to summarize the characteristics of each paper, with both quantitative and open-ended qualitative codes. The first of these was a written coding guide with descriptions and examples of each code (e.g., study type, learning theory, program design features) and a live coding form to allow individuals to formally record this information as data. Using these instruments, we have coded 312 papers to be used in the analysis. This literature review supports the development of a theory of change model to describe the relationship between participation in TREs and STEM teachers’ classroom practices. The presentation will describe the products and preliminary findings from this project. The authors contributed to this work as a part of the Collaborative Around Research Experiences for Teachers (CARET), and funding was provided by the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) Network of STEM Education Centers (NSEC) Research Action Cluster (RAC), Murdock Charitable Trust, and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP).
Title: Autism and writing: The case of the morpheme
Abstract: Most studies of morphological knowledge of children focus on oral language. More recently the field has been begun to look at textual knowledge, however written morphological knowledge remains an area of research that is largely neglected (Green, McCutchen, Schwiebert, Quinlan, Eva-Wood, & Juelis, 2003). Studies analyzing the use of morphology in written text by students with disabilities are even more scarce. It is important to consider writing development of students with ASD because language impairment is often associated with autism (Boucher, 2003). Delayed language development may have a direct impact on writing development because it is essentially recorded language. This study is a case study of one upper elementary student with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the data were the written content of her journal over two school years, her third and fourth grade years (using data from Wolfberg, 2003). Diary entries were analyzed for the use of compound words, words with inflections, and words with dervational affixes. For each category, overall percentage of each word type across time and all written words were analyzed. Although the developmental trajectory for students with ASD varies widely individual to individual it may be helpful both for researchers and interventionists to better understand the development of written morphology use for students with ASD.
Title: An innovative approach to measure orthographic processing
Abstract: Orthographic processing, the ability to perceive, access, differentiate, and manipulate orthographic knowledge, is essential when learning to recognize words visually. Despite its critical importance in literacy acquisition, the field lacks a tool to assess this essential cognitive ability. The goal of this study was to design a computer-based assessment of orthographic processing and investigate its psychometric properties. The rationale for designing specific items is discussed, methods used to separate orthographic processing from word recognition and spelling ability are presented, and item suitability is examined. Based on the findings of the analysis person separation reliability is .91. Differential item functioning analysis indicated that the assessment is not culturally biased.
Roxanne Rashedi; Mil Wajanakunakorn, UC Davis; Jessalynn Sheldon, UC Davis; Christine Hu, UC Davis; Noreen Mansuri, UC Davis, Nour Elgezawi, UC Davis
Title: A Pilot Study of a Classroom-Based Yoga Intervention with Transitional Kindergarteners and Kindergartners
Abstract: Background: Self-regulatory skills are robust predictors of important outcomes throughout development (Moffit et al., 2011). A growing body of literature has suggested the effectiveness of movement-based contemplative practices, such as yoga, on self-regulation and emotional regulation outcomes (Maynard, Solis, Miller, & Brendel, 2017). Extant literature, however, has not examined the effects these practices may have on children between the ages of four to sixâ€”a developmental period when the plasticity in the brain is the greatest. This study investigated the effects of yoga in transitional kindergarten and kindergarten students on teacher rated self-regulation, emotional regulation, and social and emotional skills, and direct assessments of self-regulation.
Methods: This randomized wait-list controlled trial with 154 four to six-year-old students evaluated the effects of an eight-week yoga intervention. We investigated how the intervention might meet the needs of schools serving students from low socioeconomic status groups, as indexed by eligibility for free and reduced and lunch programs and parent education level. Children in five transitional kindergarten and four kindergarten classrooms were randomly assigned by classroom to the intervention (five classrooms, Treatment First, TxFirst; n=90) or a wait-list control (four classrooms, Treatment Second, TxSecond; n=64). Both TxFirst and TxSecond groups were assessed at three time points: pre-intervention (Time 1), immediately post-intervention for TxFirst (Time 2), and immediately post-intervention for TxSecond (Time 3).
Results: At baseline, there were significant differences between TxFirst and TxSecond on selected outcomes measures. Children in both groups with higher teacher ratings of average engagement during the yoga intervention performed significantly better on a direct assessment of self-regulation. There were no other significant findings on direct assessments. There was a main effect on subscales of teacher rated self-regulation, emotional-regulation, and social and emotional skills for treatment condition, and these results were maintained for selected subscales at T3.
Conclusions: These results, observed over a relatively short intervention period, suggest the modest promise of yoga for promoting self-regulation, emotional regulation, and social and emotional skills in young children. These findings also support the need for longer intervention studies and future investigation of program implementation across various settings.
Title: The Process of Parental Involvement in the Education of Children with ADHD
The overarching goal of this paper is to develop an integrated framework for explaining the degree to which parents of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are involved, how and why they are involved in their children’s learning, and the potential benefits of such involvement. The integrated model is guided by three different conceptual approaches related to the family-school connection (Epstein, 1987, 1995; Hoover-Dempsey & Jones, 1997; Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005; Kim & Sheridan, 2015), as well as the literature related to the role of parental involvement in the education of children with disabilities (Benson, Karlof, & Siperstein, 2008). This model has delineated the factors that impact parents’ decisions to become involved in their children’s education, the forms of home-school connection, and its impacts on the educational outcomes of children with ADHD involvement; such factors have been typically excluded from most research studies. Although the academic difficulties of children with ADHD are well documented (Barkley, Fischer, Smallish, Fletcher, 2006; Frazier et al., 2007; Hinshaw, 1992), relatively little is known about the factors that contribute to these impairments. The developmental psychopathology model considers children’s developing capacities at the nexus of interacting ecological systems. However, the contextual factors that are associated with underachievement in children with ADHD have been neglected in the literature, in particular, literature that has examined the role of parents’ involvement in the learning of children with ADHD (Rogers, Wiener, Marton, & Tannock, 2009). This paper provides a roadmap for specific conditions and factors that influence the process of parental involvement in the education of children with ADHD.
Alejandra Ojeda-Beck, Kira Gleghorn
Title: The impact of Teaching Tolerance lesson plans on 5th grade student’s self-measures of Social Justice