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We currently store our on-site backups across a couple drives on
hal:/opt/backups (6 TiB usable; 2x 6-TiB Seagate drives in RAID 1 in an LVM
This volume group provides
/dev/vg-backups/backups-live which contains
recent daily, weekly, and monthly backups, and
/dev/vg-backups/backups-scratch, which is scratch space for holding
compressed and encrypted backups which we then upload to off-site storage.
Our main off-site backup location is Box. Students automatically get an "unlimited" plan, so it provides a nice and free location to store encrypted backups. We currently have a weekly cronjob that makes an encrypted backup using GPG keys and then uploads it to Box.com. This takes about 20 hours combined to make and upload, and will probably take even longer in the future as backups grow. An email is sent out once the backup files are uploaded, and the link provided is shared with only OCF officers to make sure the backups are kept as secure as possible, since they contain all of the OCF's important data. The backups are already encrypted, but it doesn't hurt to add a little extra security to that.
Off-site backups older than six months (180 days) are permanently deleted by a daily cronjob.
The easiest way to restore from a backup is to look at how it is made and
reverse it. If it is a directory specified in rsnapshot, then likely all that
needs to be done is to take that directory from the backup and put it onto the
server to restore onto. Some backups, such as mysql, ldap, and kerberos are
more complicated, and need to be restored using
Onsite backups are pretty simple, all that needs to be done is to go to
and find the backup to restore from in
/opt/backups/live. All backups of
recent data are found in either
rsnapshot (for daily backups) or
any incidents or one-off backups). Within
rsnapshot, the backups are
organized into directories dependings on how long ago the backup was made. To
see when each backup was created just use
ls -l to show the last modified
time of each directory.
Offsite backups are more complicated because the backup files first need to be downloaded, stuck together into a single file, decrypted, extracted, and then put into LVM to get back the whole backup archive that would normally be found onsite. This essentially just means that the create-encrypted-backup script needs to be reversed to restore once the backup files are downloaded. Here are the general steps to take to restore from an offsite backup:
Download all the backup pieces from Box.com. This is generally easiest with
a command line tool like
cadaver, which can just use a
mget * to download
all the files (albeit sequentially). If more speed is needed, open multiple
cadaver connections and download multiple groups of files at once.
Put together all the backup pieces into a single file. This can be done by
cat <backup>.img.gz.gpg.part* > <backup>.img.gz.gpg.
Decrypt the backup using
gpg. This requires your key pair to be imported
gpg first using
gpg --import public_key.gpg and
gpg --allow-secret-key-import --import private_key.gpg, then you can
decrypt the backup with
gpg --output <backup>.img.gz --decrypt <backup>.img.gz.gpg. Be careful to
keep your private key secure by setting good permissions on it so that nobody
else can read it, and delete it after the backup is imported. The keys can be
gpg --delete-secret-keys "<Name>" and
gpg --delete-key "<Name>", where your name is whatever name it shows when
Extract the backup with
Put the backup image into a LVM logical volume. First find the size that the
volume should be by running
ls -l <backup>.img, and copy the number of
bytes that outputs. Then create the LV with
sudo lvcreate -L <bytes>B -n <name> /dev/<volume group> where the volume
group has enough space to store the entire backup (2+ TiB).
Backups currently include:
Backups are currently made daily via a cronjob on
hal which calls
The current settings are to retain 7 daily backups, 4 weekly backups, and 6
monthly backups, but we might adjust this as it takes more space or we get
larger backup drives.
rsnapshot to make incremental backups. Typically, each new backup
takes an additional ~3GiB of space (but this will vary based on how many files
actually changed). A full backup is about ~2TiB of space and growing.
(The incremental file backups are only about ~300 MiB, but since mysqldump files can't be incrementally backed up, those take a whole ~2 GiB each time, so the total backup grows by ~3GiB each time. However, an old backup is discarded each time too, so it approximately breaks even.)