The OCF's print server is based around two components: CUPS, the standard UNIX print server, and a custom print accounting system contained in the ocflib API. CUPS is responsible for receiving print jobs over the network, converting documents to a printer-friendly format, and delivering processed jobs to one of the available printers. The OCF's print accounting system, nicknamed enforcer after one of the scripts, plugs into CUPS as a hook that looks at jobs before and after going to the printer. It records jobs in a database that keeps track of how many pages each user has printed, rejecting jobs that go over quota. The high level flow of data through the print system looks like this:

         | PDF or PS document
[Print spool (CUPS)]
         | Raw document
[Filter(s) (ocfps)]
         | Converted PS document
[Backend (Tea4CUPS)]
         |  Accept or reject
         +<------------------+[Page counter (enforcer)]
         |                               ^
         v                               |
     [Printer]                           |                 Remaining quota
         +                               +-------+/      \<---------------+/             \
         | Status/completion time                 |ocflib|                 |Jobs database|
         v                               +------->\      /+--------------->\             /
     [Backend]                           |                 Job table entry
         +                               |
         |                               +
         +---------------------->[Enforcer (again)]
         |  Log success/failure
[Print spool logger]

CUPS pipeline overview

The first stage of printing is handled by the application that sends the print job, such as Evince. The application opens up a system print dialog, which gets a list of available printers and options from the local CUPS client, which in turn gets it from the printhost. The application renders the desired pages to a PostScript, PDF, or other CUPS-compatible format, then sends it to the printhost.

The CUPS server on the printhost receives the job and print options and queues the job for printing. The actual document, plus metadata including user-set options, is stored in the print spool at /var/spool/cups until a printer becomes available to print it. The document is converted into a more printer-friendly format before it actually reaches the printer. Once it's ready to print, it is sent to the printer via some backend such as IPP.

Finally, the printer accepts a PostScript document as raw data and prints it out (some also support raster formats). This part of the process is largely controlled by the printer's onboard configuration, which can be modified by visiting the printer's IP over the web (e.g. https://papercut/). In the OCF's case, security is provided by an access control list (ACL) which accepts print jobs from the printhost and rejects jobs from other hosts.


CUPS handles documents of many different formats. Some typical MIME types include application/pdf for raw PDF and application/vnd.cups-postscript for printable PostScript. To convert between formats, CUPS runs the data through programs called filters. A filter is, basically, a program that takes a special call format, plus CUPS-specific environment variables, and converts files from one format to another while adding special formatting options like duplex mode.

CUPS uses not just one, but potentially several filters to get the document into its final format. For example, a PDF file might go through pdftops to convert it to PostScript, then pstops to insert print job options such as duplexing, then, finally, a device-specific filter such as hpcups. Each filter is associated with an internal "cost", and CUPS picks the path with the least total cost to print the document.

At the OCF, print jobs are all processed by a single filter, ocfps, which converts raw PDFs to rasterized, printable PostScript. It calls on a command-line converter to render the PDF as pixels (rasterization), then passes the result and the rest of the arguments to standard CUPS filters. So far, this has given us the fewest headaches in terms of malformatted output and printer errors.


In order to know what job options are available for a particular printer and how to convert documents to a printable format, CUPS requires large config files called PostScript Printer Drivers (PPDs). The OCF uses a modified HP PPD for the M806. There are two versions of it: one which only allows double-sided printing and one which only allows single-sided. This is how we implement the "double" and "single" classes. The PPDs tell CUPS to use ocfps to convert documents to PostScript, plus they turn on economode so we can afford the toner.

Print accounting

The OCF uses a virtual CUPS printer backend called Tea4CUPS to install a page accounting hook that runs before and after each job is actually sent to the printer. The script is called enforcer, but all the logic is contained in the ocflib printing package. All jobs are logged in the ocfprinting SQL database, including the username, print queue, and number of pages. Several views count up the number of pages printed by each user per day and per semester.

Page counting is actually done when the document is converted to PostScript, since CUPS-processed PostScript includes the page count as a comment near the top or bottom of the file. When enforcer receives a job that would put the user over daily or semesterly quota, it emails the user and returns an error code that cancels the job. Otherwise, it logs successful print jobs in the database and emails users in the case a job fails.

Desktop notifications

After printing a document from a desktop, lab visitors are notified when pages are subtracted from their quota by a little popup notification. This is done by a short daemon script, notify script, which starts upon login and runs the paper command every minute to see if the quota has changed.

In the future, it would be nice to have a more robust notification system where enforcer pushes notifications to desktops while a job is printing. This would allow for richer notifications to be displayed; namely, alerts to show when a job has started or finished printing, whether the job printed successfully, and whether it went over quota. Current thinking is that this could be implemented by broadcasting notifications to the whole network, or just the desktops, and modifying the notify script to listen for messages about the current user.

See also