Git is a distributed revision control system used by the OCF. Other version control systems include Mercurial (also distributed) and Subversion (not distributed).
Although Git is a great tool for large-scale distributed development, for us a Subversion-like workflow with a "central repository" (where you clone/fetch from and push to) and linear history makes more sense. The instructions below assume that development is happening in a single branch.
Only commit your own, original work. You may commit another staff member's
work if you have permission and change the author appropriately (e.g.,
--author="Guest User <email@example.com>"). When committing,
user.name should be your name and
git config user.email should be your OCF
email address -- this should be taken care of by LDAP and
/etc/mailname on OCF machines.
Get the latest commits from the central repository and update your working tree.
git pull --rebase
git fetch (update your local copy of the remote repository) and
git rebase (rewrite current branch in terms of tracked branch). The rebase
prevents unnecessary merge commits by moving your local commits on top of the
latest remote commit (
FETCH_HEAD). This is a good thing if you have any local
commits which have not yet been pushed to the remote repository.
If you have "dirty" uncommitted changes, you'll need to commit them or stash
them before rebasing (
Make commits and push them to the central repository.
git add FILES # add current state of FILES in working tree to index
git commit # store index as a commit in current branch
# repeat git add and git commit for more commits
git rebase -i # clean up the history (reword or squash commits)
git push # push current branch to tracked branch in remote repository
git add -p to inspect individual changes before adding each one to the
git commit -v to show a diff of your commit when you are prompted
for a commit message.
If commits have been made on the remote repository in the meantime, you'll need to "update" first (see above).
Pull someone else's changes into the central repository, for example from a
branch in a staff member's repository (
git fetch REMOTE # update local copy of remote
git log --graph --decorate FETCH_HEAD ^HEAD^ # list remote commits on top of current branch
git diff FETCH_HEAD # compare current branch with remote branch
git merge --ff-only FETCH_HEAD # merge in if can linearly fast-forward
If you can't fast-forward merge, "update" the remote repository first (see above).
If you want a merge commit, you can
git merge --no-ff instead.
Current state of working tree:
Throw away uncommitted changes:
git checkout -- FILES # in particular files
git reset --hard HEAD # in the entire working tree
Revise the last commit:
git commit --amend
Undo the last commit:
git reset HEAD^ # leaves changes in the working tree so they can be committed again
git reset --hard HEAD^ # throws away changes
git filter-branch # rewrite history according to a filter
git blame # show the commit which last modified each line of a file
git reflog # useful for undoing git mistakes
HEAD points to the latest commit ref in the current branch (
the one before it)
git fetch from or
git push to, default